Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Pyrometric Estimation of Exhaust Valve Temperature of an Internal Combustion Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Luca Romani

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via di Santa Marta 3,
Florence 51039, Italy
e-mail: luca.romani@unifi.it

Lorenzo Ferrari

National Council of Research of Italy,
Via Madonna del Piano 10,
Sesto F.no (Fl) 50019, Italy
e-mail: lorenzo.ferrari@iccom.cnr.it

Ennio A. Carnevale

e-mail: ennio.carnevale@unifi.it
Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via di Santa Marta 3,
Florence 51039, Italy
e-mail: giovanni.ferrara@unifi.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received October 14, 2013; final manuscript received November 13, 2013; published online December 12, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(4), 041507 (Dec 12, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1367; doi: 10.1115/1.4026048 History: Received October 14, 2013; Revised November 13, 2013

The estimation of exhaust valve temperature of an internal combustion engine during its operation would be very useful for a more reliable and accurate design of valves and, more in general, of the whole valvetrain system. On the other hand, the direct temperature measurement of a valve is a big challenge because of its position inside the engine head, its high speed motion and the high temperature environment in which it works. To face this problem, an innovative experimental methodology is developed and shown in this paper. An experimental setup, based on the use of a pyrometer, is assembled and assessed thought several preliminary and on engine tests. The preliminary activity is focused on the estimation of the real emissivity of the exhaust valve surface and on the radiance attenuation due to the optical access and exhaust gasses interference. Once the measurement chain is assessed, several tests are carried out directly on an engine in working condition at the test bench. The tests allow to estimate the exhaust valve temperature in several stable engine working points as well as in transient conditions (load variation). In particular a first analysis of the correlations between valve temperature and some engine parameters like spark advance and air-to-fuel ratio is finally reported in this paper.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Ravindra Prasad, N. K. S., 1991, “Transient Heat Transfer Studies on a Diesel Engine Valve,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 33, pp. 179–195. [CrossRef]
Gustof, P., and Hornik, A., 2007, “Modeling of the Heat Loads of the Engine Valves and the Accuracy of Calculations,” J. Achiev. Mater. Manuf. Eng., 23(2), pp. 59–62.
Cerit, M., Ayhan, V., Parlak, A., and Yasar, H., 2011, “Thermal Analysis of a Partially Ceramic Coated Piston: Effect on Cold Start HC Emission in a Spark Ignition Engine,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31, pp. 336–341. [CrossRef]
Buono, D., Iarrobino, E., and Senatore, A., 2011, “Optical Piston Temperature Measurement in an Internal Combustion Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 4, pp. 482–497. [CrossRef]
Neal, J., Jordan, J., and Rothamer, D., 2013, “Simultaneous Measurements of In-Cylinder Temperature and Velocity Distribution in a Small-Bore Diesel Engine Using Thermographic Phosphors,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 6, pp. 300–318. [CrossRef]
Hendricks, T., and Ghandhi, J., 2012, “Estimation of Surface Heat Flux in IC Engines Using Temperature Measurements: Processing Code Effects,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 5, pp. 1268–1285. [CrossRef]
Madison, D., Miers, S., Barna, G., and Richerson, J., 2013, “Comparison of Piston Temperature Measurement Methods: Templugs Versus Wireless Telemetry With Thermocouples,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135, p. 061602. [CrossRef]
Flouros, M., Stadlbauer, M., Cottier, F., Proestler, S., and Beichl, S., 2013, “Transient Temperature Measurements in the Contact Zone Between Brush Seals of Kevlar and Metallic Type for Bearing Chamber Sealing Using a Pyrometric Technique,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135, p. 081603. [CrossRef]
Mizuno, H., Ashida, K., Teraji, A., Ushijima, K., and Takemura, S., 2009, “Transient Analysis of the Piston Temperature With Consideration of In-Cylinder Phenomena Using Engine Measurement and Heat Transfer Simulation Coupled With Three-Dimensional Combustion Simulation,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 2, pp. 83–90. [CrossRef]
Schnitzler, T., Hanula, B., Heubes, S., and Schumacher, R., 2004, “Synergy Between Finite Element Analysis Temperature Engine Map Calculations and the Most Modern Pyrometric Measuring Technique Shown for Charge Change Valves,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2004-32-0028. [CrossRef]
Heywood, J., 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw–Hill, New York.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Scheme of the test bench for emissivity estimation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Engine on the test bench

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

High temperature glass support

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Heater solenoid and exhaust valve application (red hot valve)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Optical access on the exhaust duct

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Real emissivity versus body temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Experimental layout for the estimation of the high temperature resistant glass transparency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

High temperature glass percentage attenuation versus radiance issued by the body surface. The gray zone is the range of interest.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Exhaust valve temperature at 5000 rpm varying the ignition advance ±10 deg with respect to the base ignition advance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Relative error on the real valve temperature measurement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Photo of the exhaust valve inside the engine head

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Interaction between the pyrometer cone of view and the exhaust system; spot position on the valve, (a) valve minimum lift, (b) valve maximum lift

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Exhaust valve temperature at 6500 rpm, the throttle valve opening is varied from 30 to 100%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Exhaust valve temperature at 5000 rpm varying the air/fuel ratio



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In