Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Influence of Pressure and Steam Dilution on NOx and CO Emissions in a Premixed Natural Gas Flame

[+] Author and Article Information
Sebastian Göke, Thoralf Reichel, Katharina Göckeler

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Technische Universität,
Berlin 10623, Germany

Sebastian Schimek

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Technische Universität,
Berlin 10623, Germany
e-mail: sebastian.goeke@tu-berlin.de

Steffen Terhaar

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Technische Universität,
Berlin 10623, Germany

Oliver Krüger

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Technische Universität
Berlin 10623, Germany

Julia Fleck, Peter Griebel

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Combustion Technology,
Stuttgart 70569, Germany

Christian Oliver Paschereit

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Technische Universität,
Berlin 10623, Germany
e-mail: oliver.paschereit@tu-berlin.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 26, 2014; final manuscript received February 9, 2014; published online April 18, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(9), 091508 (Apr 18, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1050; doi: 10.1115/1.4026942 History: Received January 26, 2014; Revised February 09, 2014

In the current study, the influence of pressure and steam on the emission formation in a premixed natural gas flame is investigated at pressures between 1.5 bar and 9 bar. A premixed, swirl-stabilized combustor is developed that provides a stable flame up to very high steam contents. Combustion tests are conducted at different pressure levels for equivalence ratios from lean blowout to near-stoichiometric conditions and steam-to-air mass ratios from 0% to 25%. A reactor network is developed to model the combustion process. The simulation results match the measured NOx and CO concentrations very well for all operating conditions. The reactor network is used for a detailed investigation of the influence of steam and pressure on the NOx formation pathways. In the experiments, adding 20% steam reduces NOx and CO emissions to below 10 ppm at all tested pressures up to near-stoichiometric conditions. Pressure scaling laws are derived: CO changes with a pressure exponent of approximately −0.5 that is not noticeably affected by the steam. For the NOx emissions, the exponent increases with equivalence ratio from 0.1 to 0.65 at dry conditions. At a steam-to-air mass ratio of 20%, the NOx pressure exponent is reduced to −0.1 to +0.25. The numerical analysis reveals that steam has a strong effect on the combustion chemistry. The reduction in NOx emissions is mainly caused by lower concentrations of atomic oxygen at steam-diluted conditions, constraining the thermal pathway.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Pratt & Whitney, 2002, “Humid Air Turbine Cycle Technology Development Program—Final Report,” National Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Technical Progress Report.
Araki, H., Koganezawa, T., Myouren, C., Higuchi, S., Takahashi, T., and Eta, T., 2012, “Experimental and Analytical Study on the Operation Characteristics of the AHAT System,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(5), p. 051701. [CrossRef]
Bartlett, M., 2002, “Developing Humidified Gas Turbine Cycles,” Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Göke, S., Füri, M., Bourque, G., Bobusch, B., Göckeler, K., Krüger, O., Schimek, S., Terhaar, S., and Paschereit, C. O., 2013, “Influence of Steam Dilution on the Combustion of Natural Gas and Hydrogen in Premixed and Rich-Quench-Lean Combustors,” Fuel Process. Technol., 107, pp. 14–22. [CrossRef]
Dryer, F., 1977, “Water Addition to Practical Combustion Systems—Concepts and Applications,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 16(1), pp. 279–295. [CrossRef]
Mazas, A., Lacoste, D., and Schuller, T., 2010, “Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the Laminar Flame Speed of CH4/O2 Mixtures Diluted With CO2 and H2O,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22512. [CrossRef]
Zhao, D., Yamashita, H., Kitagawa, K., Arai, N., and Furuhata, T., 2002, “Behavior and Effect on NOx Formation of OH Radical in Methane-Air Diffusion Flame With Steam Addition,” Combust. Flame, 130(4), pp. 352–360. [CrossRef]
Göke, S., and Paschereit, C., 2013, “Influence of Steam Dilution on Nitrogen Oxide Formation in Premixed Methane/Hydrogen Flames,” J. Propul. Power, 29(1), pp. 249–260. [CrossRef]
Bhargava, A., Colket, M., Sowa, W., Casleton, K., and Maloney, D., 2000, “An Experimental and Modeling Study of Humid Air Premixed Flames,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 122(3), pp. 405–411. [CrossRef]
Kobayashi, H., Yata, S., Ichikawa, Y., and Ogami, Y., 2009, “Dilution Effects of Superheated Water Vapor on Turbulent Premixed Flames at High Pressure and High Temperature,” Proc. Combustion Inst., 32(2), pp. 2607–2614. [CrossRef]
Warnatz, J., Maas, U., and Dibble, R., 2006, Combustion—Physical and Chemical Fundamentals, Modeling and Simulation, Experiments, Pollutant Formation, 4th ed., Springer, New York.
Göke, S., Terhaar, S., Göckeler, K., and Paschereit, C., 2011, “Combustion of Natural Gas, Hydrogen and Bio-Fuels at Ultra-Wet Conditions,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45696. [CrossRef]
Park, J., Keel, S. I., and Yun, J. H., 2007, “Addition Effects of H2 and H2O Flame Structure and Pollutant Emissions in Methane-Air Diffusion Flame,” Energy Fuels, 21(6), pp. 3216–3224. [CrossRef]
Beér, J., and Chigier, N., 1972, Combustion Aerodynamics, Applied Science Publishers Ltd., New York.
Fleck, J., Griebel, P., Steinberg, A., Stöhr, M., Aigner, M., and Ciani, A., 2010, Experimental Investigation of a Generic, Fuel Flexible Reheat Combustor at Gas Turbine Relevant Operating Conditions, ASME, New York.
Goodwin, D., 2003, “An Open Source, Extensible Software Suite for CVD Process Simulation,” California Institute of Technology, Division of Engineering and Applied Science, Pasadena, CA.
Healy, D., Kalitan, D., Aul, C., Petersen, E., Bourque, G., and Curran, H., 2010, “Oxidation of C1–C5 Alkane Quinternary Natural Gas Mixtures at High Pressures,” Energy Fuels, 24(3), pp. 1521–1528. [CrossRef]
Sivaramakrishnan, R., Brezinsky, K., Dayma, G., and Dagaut, P., 2007, “High Pressure Effects on the Mutual Sensitization of the Oxidation of NO and CH4–C2H6 Blends,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 9(31), pp. 4230–4244. [CrossRef]
Beér, J., 1965, “The Effect of the Residence Time Distribution on the Performance and Efficiency of Combustors,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 10(1), pp. 1187–1202. [CrossRef]
Michaud, M., Westmoreland, P., and Feitelberg, A., 1992, “Chemical Mechanisms of NOx Formation for Gas Turbine Conditions,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 24(1), pp. 879–887. [CrossRef]
Leckner, B., 1972, “Spectral and Total Emissivity of Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide,” Combust. Flame, 19(1), pp. 33–48. [CrossRef]
Correa, S., 1993, “A Review of NOx Formation Under Gas-Turbine Combustion Conditions,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 87(1–6), pp. 329–362. [CrossRef]
Bhargava, A., Kendrick, D. W., Colket, M. B., Sowa, W. A., Casleton, K. H., and Maloney, D. J., 2000, “Pressure Effect on NOx and CO Emissions in Industrial Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-97.
Lefebvre, H., 1983, Gas Turbine Combustion, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York.
Biagioli, F., and Güthe, F., 2007, “Effect of Pressure and Fuel-Air Unmixedness on NOx Emissions From Industrial Gas Turbine Burners,” Combust. Flame, 151(1-2), pp. 247–288. [CrossRef]
Santner, J., Dryer, F., and Ju, Y., 2012, “Effect of Water Content on Syngas Combustion at Elevated Pressure,” 50th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting, Nashville, TN, January 9–12, AIAA Paper No. 2012-0163. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sketch of the injector. The circular combustion chamber for the water tunnel experiments is shown.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Setup for the gas-fired tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of the reactor network

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Line-of-sight integrated OH* chemiluminescence images of the flame (window size is 140 mm × 140 mm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Measured CO concentrations. For each curve, the equivalence ratio is decreased from φ = 0.95 in steps of Δφ = 0.05 until blowout occurs.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Measured NOx concentration for 1.5 bar

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Contribution of the NOx formation pathways: (a) p = 1.5 bars, ω = 0; (b) p = 9 bars, ω = 0; (c) p =  6.5 bars, ω = 0.2; and (d) p = 9 bars, ω  = 0.2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Measured and simulated emissions for Ω = 0 and Ω = 0.2 at various pressures: (a) CO emissions, and (b) NOx emissions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Measured NOx concentrations for different pressures at Ω = 0 and Ω = 0.2



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In