Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Controls, Diagnostics, and Instrumentation

Integrated HCCI Engine Control Based on a Performance Index

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Bidarvatan

Department of Mechanical
Engineering-Engineering Mechanics,
Michigan Technological University,
Houghton, Michigan 49930
e-mail: mbidarva@mtu.edu

M. Shahbakhti

Department of Mechanical
Engineering-Engineering Mechanics,
Michigan Technological University,
Houghton, Michigan 49930
e-mail: mahdish@mtu.edu

Contributed by the Controls, Diagnostics and Instrumentation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 16, 2014; final manuscript received February 22, 2014; published online May 2, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(10), 101601 (May 02, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1102; doi: 10.1115/1.4027279 History: Received February 16, 2014; Revised February 22, 2014

The integrated control of a homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion phasing, load, and exhaust aftertreatment system is essential for realizing high-efficient HCCI engines, while maintaining low hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. This paper introduces a new approach for integrated HCCI engine control by defining a novel performance index to characterize different HCCI operating regions. The experimental data from a single cylinder engine at 214 operating conditions is used to determine the performance index for a blended fuel HCCI engine. The new performance index is then used to design an optimum reference trajectory for a multi-input multi-output HCCI controller. The optimum trajectory is designed for control of the combustion phasing and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), while meeting catalyst light-off requirements for the exhaust aftertreatment system. The designed controller is tested on a previously validated physical HCCI engine model. The simulation results illustrate the successful application of the new approach for controller design of HCCI engines.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Zhao, F., Asmus, T., Assanis, D. N., Dec, J. E., Eng, J. A., and Najt, P. M., 2003, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
Williams, S., Hu, L., Nakazono, T., Ohtsubo, H., and Uchida, M., 2008, “Oxidation Catalysts for Natural Gas Engine Operating Under HCCI or SI Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-0807 [CrossRef].
Shahbakhti, M., Ghazimirsaied, A., and Koch, C. R., 2010, “Experimental Study of Exhaust Temperature Variation in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine,” Proc.Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D: J. Automob. Eng., 224(9), pp. 1177–1197. [CrossRef]
Xingcai, L., Yuchum, H., Libin, J,.Linlin, Z., and Zhen, H., 2006, “Heat Release Analysis on Combustion and Parametric Study on Emissions of HCCI Engines Fueled With 2-Propanol/n-Heptane Blend Fuels,” Energy Fuels, 20(5), pp. 1870–1878. [CrossRef]
Kalghatgi, G. T. and Head, R. A., 2006, “Combustion Limits and Efficiency in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine,” Int. J. Engine Res., 7(3), pp. 215–236. [CrossRef]
Shahbakhti, M. and Koch, C. R., 2008, “Characterizing the Cyclic Variability of Ignition Timing in an HCCI Engine Fueled With n-Heptane/iso-Octane Blend Fuels,” Int. J. Engine Res., 9(9), pp. 361–397. [CrossRef]
Xu, H. M., Wyszynski, M. L., Megaritis, A., Yap, D., Wilson, T., Qiao, J., Richardson, S., Golunski, S., and Peucheret, S., 2007, “Research on Expansion of Operating Windows of Controlled Homogeneous Auto-Ignition Engines,” Int. J. Engine Res., 8(1), pp. 29–40. [CrossRef]
Shahbakhti, M., Ghazimirsaied, A., and Koch, C. R., 2011, “Modeling Ranges of Cyclic Variability for HCCI Ignition Timing Control,” ASME Paper No. DSCC2011-6118 [CrossRef].
Lu, X., Chen, W., Hou, Y., and Huang, Z., 2005, “Study on the Ignition, Combustion and Emissions of HCCI Combustion Engines Fueled With Primary Reference Fuels,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2005-01-0155 [CrossRef].
Widd, A., Ekholm, K., Tunestål, P., and Johansson, R., 2012, “Physics-Based Model Predictive Control of HCCI Combustion Phasing Using Fast Thermal Management and VVA,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 20(3), pp. 688–699. [CrossRef]
Ravi, N., Liao, H. H., Jungkunz, A. F., Widd, A., and Gerdes, J. C., 2012, “Model Predictive Control of HCCI Using Variable Valve Actuation and Fuel Injection,” J. Control Eng. Pract., 20(4), pp. 421–430. [CrossRef]
Chiang, C. J., Stefanopoulou, A. G., and Jankovic, M., 2007, “Nonlinear Observer-Based Control of Load Transitions in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 15(3), pp. 438–448. [CrossRef]
Chiang, C. J., Huang, C. C., and Jankovic, M., 2010, “Discrete-Time Cross-Term Forwarding Design of Robust Controllers for HCCI Engines,” American Control Conference (ACC), Baltimore, MD, June 30-July 2, pp. 2218–2223.
Strandh, P., Bengtsson, J., Johansson, R., Tunestål, P., and Johansson, B., 2005, “Variable Valve Actuation for Timing Control of a HCCI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2005-01-0147 [CrossRef].
Olsson, J.-O., Tunestål, P., and Johansson, B., 2001, “Closed-Loop Control of an HCCI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2001-01-1031 [CrossRef].
Audet, A. and Koch, C. R., 2009, “Actuator Comparison for Closed Loop Control of HCCI Combustion Timing,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1135 [CrossRef].
Bidarvatan, M., Shahbakhti, M., and Jazayeri, S. A., 2012, “Model-Based Control of Combustion Phasing in an HCCI Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 5(3), pp. 1163–1176 [CrossRef].
Ravi, N., Roelle, M. J., Liao, H.-H., Jungkunz, A. F., Chang, C. F., Park, S., and Gerdes, J. C., 2010, “Model-Based Control of HCCI Engines Using Exhaust Recompression,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 18(6), pp. 1289–1302 [CrossRef].
Haraldsson, G., Tunestål, P., and Johansson, B., 2005, “Transient Control of a Multi Cylinder HCCI Engine During a Drive Cycle,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2005-01-0153 [CrossRef].
Shaver, G. M., Gerdes, J. C., and Roelle, M. J., 2009, “Physics-Based Modeling and Control of Residual-Affected HCCI Engines,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 131(2), p. 021002. [CrossRef]
Shaver, G. M., Gerdes, J. C., and Roelle, M. J., 2004, “Physics-Based Closed Loop Control of Phasing, Peak Pressure and Work Output in HCCI Engines Utilizing Variable Valve Actuation,” American Control Conference, Boston, MA, June 30-July 2, pp. 150–155.
Bidarvatan, M., Shahbakhti, M., Jazayeri, S. A., and Koch, C. R., 2014, “Cycle-to-Cycle Modeling and Sliding Mode Control of Blended Fuel HCCI Engine,” J. Control Eng. Pract., 24, pp. 79–91. [CrossRef]
Bidarvatan, M. and Shahbakhti, M., 2013, “Two-Input Two-Output Control of Blended Fuel HCCI Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-1663 [CrossRef].
Ravi, N., Liao, H.-H., Jungkunz, A. F., Chang, C. F., Song, H. H., and Gerdes, J. C., 2012, “Modeling and Control of an Exhaust Recompression HCCI Engine Using Split Injection,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 134(1), p. 011016. [CrossRef]
Tandra, V. and Srivastava, N., 2009, “Optimal Peak Pressure and Exhaust Temperature Tracking Control for a Two Zone HCCI Engine Model With Mean Burn Duration,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1130 [CrossRef].
Gorzelic, P., Hellström, E., Stefanopoulou, A. G., and Jiang, L., 2012, “Model-Based Feedback Control for an Automated Transfer Out of SI Operation During SI to HCCI Transitions in Gasoline Engines,” ASME Paper No. DSCC2012-8779 [CrossRef].
Bengtsson, J., Strandh, P., Johansson, R., Tunesta, P., and Johansson, B., 2007, “Hybrid Modeling of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Dynamics—A Survey,” Int. J. Control, 80(11), pp. 1814–1847. [CrossRef]
Strandh, P., Bengtsson, J., Johansson, R., Tunestål, P., and Johansson, B., 2004, “Cycle-to-Cycle Control of a Dual-Fuel HCCI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2004-01-0941 [CrossRef].
Liao, H. H., Widd, A., Ravi, N., Jungkunz, A. F., Kang, J. M., and Gerdes, J. C.,2013, “Control of Recompression HCCI With a Three Region Switching Controller,” J. Control Eng. Pract., 21(2), pp. 135–145. [CrossRef]
Heywood, J. B., 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Ferrari, V., Rabinowitz, H., Siemund, S., Collinq, T., and Campbell, B., 2007, “Achieving EURO III and EURO IV With Ultra-Low Precious Metal Loadings,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-2565 [CrossRef].
Jean, E., Leroy, V., Montenegro, G., Onorati, A., and Laurell, M., 2007, “Impact of Ultra Low Thermal Inertia Manifolds on Emission Performance,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0935 [CrossRef].
Kuboyama, T., Moriyoshi, Y., Hatamura, K., Takanashi, J., Urata, Y., and Yamada, T., 2012, “A Study of Newly Developed HCCI Engine With Wide Operating Range Equipped With Blowdown Supercharging System,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 5(2), pp. 51–66 [CrossRef].
Sjöberg, M. and Dec, J. E., 2009, “Influence of EGR Quality and Unmixedness on the High-Load Limits of HCCI Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 2(1), pp. 492–510 [CrossRef].
Dec, J. E. and Yang, Y., 2010, “Boosted HCCI for High Power Without Engine Knock and With Ultra-Low NOx Emissions Using Conventional Gasoline,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 3(1), pp. 750–767 [CrossRef].
Johansson, T., Johansson, B., Tunestål, P., and Aulin, H., 2009, “HCCI Operating Range in a Turbo-Charged Multi Cylinder Engine With VVT and Spray-Guided DI,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-0494. [CrossRef]
Shahbakhti, M. and Koch, C. R., 2010, “Physics Based Control Oriented Model for HCCI Combustion Timing,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 132(2), p. 021010. [CrossRef]
Shahbakhti, M., Lupul, R., and Koch, C. R., 2007, “Sensitivity Analysis and Modeling of HCCI Auto-Ignition Timing,” Fifth IFAC Symposium on Advances in Automotive Control, Pajaro Dunes, August 20–22, pp. 303–310 [CrossRef].
Franklin, G. F., Powell, D., and Workman, M. L., 1988, Digital Control of Dynamic Systems, 3rd ed., Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Range of the load, exhaust temperature, and exhaust emission concentrations for the experimental data points shown in Fig. 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Engine operating range for 214 steady-state experimental data points (EGR = 0%)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Background of the HCCI engine control in literature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Variation of the HCCI engine performance index versus variations in the engine load, emission concentrations, and exhaust gas temperature. The solid lines show the range of experimental data (according to Fig. 3) and the dashed lines show the projection up to 100% normalized variation. The two black horizontal dashed lines show ΔPI = ±2%.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Engine REI contour versus the IMEP and CA50 variations. Black dots in the figure indicate the location of experimental data.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Engine AEI contour versus the IMEP and CA50 variations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Engine PI contour versus the IMEP and CA50 variations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Calculated desired CA50 trajectories: (a) in local low load and high load regions, and (b) transition from the low load region to the high load region (α = 0.02, β = 5 CAD)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Desired trajectories for Fig. 9(a) case I: (a) determined desired CA50 trajectory, and (b) input desired IMEP trajectory (α = 0.02, β = 5 CAD)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

A schematic representation of the OCP algorithm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Schematic of the controller's structure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Tracking control results: (a) control outputs, and (b) control inputs. The desired CA50 and IMEP trajectories are from Fig. 10.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In