Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Design, Evaluation and Performance Analysis of Staged Low Emission Combustors

[+] Author and Article Information
Bhupendra Khandelwal

Mechanical Engineering Department,
The University of Sheffield,
Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
e-mail: bhupendra.khandelwal@gmail.com

Olamilekan Banjo

School of Engineering,
Cranfield University,
Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK

Vishal Sethi

School of Engineering,
Cranfield University,
Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
e-mail: v.sethi@cranfield.ac.uk

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 2, 2013; final manuscript received March 22, 2014; published online May 2, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Klaus Dobbeling.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(10), 101501 (May 02, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1291; doi: 10.1115/1.4027357 History: Received August 02, 2013; Revised March 22, 2014

The most uncertain and challenging part in the design of a gas turbine has long been the combustion chamber. There has been a large number of experimentations in industry and universities alike to better understand the dynamic and complex processes that occur inside a combustion chamber. This study concentrates on gas turbine combustors, as a whole, and formulates a theoretical design procedure for staged combustors, in particular. Not much of the literature currently available in the public domain provides intensive study on designing staged combustors. The work covers an extensive study of the design methods applied in conventional combustor designs, which includes the reverse flow combustor and the axial flow annular combustors. The knowledge acquired from this study is then applied to develop a theoretical design methodology for double staged (radial and axial) low emission annular combustors. Additionally, a model combustor is designed for each type, radial and axial, of staging using the developed methodology. A prediction of the performance of the model combustors is executed. The main conclusion is that the dimensions of the model combustors obtained from the developed design methodology are within the feasibility limits. The comparison between the radially staged and the axially staged combustor has yielded the predicted results such as a lower NOx prediction for the latter and a shorter combustor length for the former. The NOx emission results of the new combustor models are found to be in the range of 50–60 ppm. However, the predicted NOx results are only very crude and need further detailed study.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Murthy, J. N., 1988, “Gas Turbine Combustor Modelling for Design,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Power and Propulsion, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK.
Hegde, G. B., Khandelwal, B., Sethi, V., and Singh, R., 2012, “Design, Evaluation and Performance Analysis of Staged Low Emission Combustors,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-69215. [CrossRef]
Mohammad, B. S. and Jeng, S. M., 2009, “Design Procedures and a Developed Computer Code for Preliminary Single Annular Combustor Design,” AIAA Paper No. 2009-5208. [CrossRef]
Khandelwal, B., Bao, L., Kumar, K. S., Sethi, V., and Singh, R., 2011, “Design Procedure of a Reverse Flow Combustor for a Helicopter Engine With High Temperature Rise” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-2562. [CrossRef]
Mellor, A. M. and Fritsky, K. J., 1990, “Turbine Combustor Preliminary Design Approach,” J. Propul. Power, 6(3), pp. 334–343. [CrossRef]
Mellor, A. M., 1990, Design of Modern Turbine Combustors, Academic, London.
Lefebvre, A. H. and Ballal, D. R., 2010, Gas Turbine Combustion: Alternative Fuels and Emissions, 3rd ed., Taylor & Francis, New York.
Lefebvre, A. H., 1981, “Fuels Effects on Gas Turbine Combustion-Liner Temperature, Pattern Factor, and Pollutant Emissions,” J. Aircr., 21(11), pp. 887–898. [CrossRef]
Khandelwal, B., Karakurt, A., Sethi, V., Singh, R., and Quan, Z., 2013, “Preliminary Design and Performance Analysis of a Low Emission Aero-Derived Gas Turbine Combustor,” Aeronaut. J., 117(1198), pp 1249–1271.
Rizk, N. K. and Lefebvre, A. H., 1993, “Semi Analytical Correlations for NOx, CO, and UHC Emissions,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 115(3), pp. 612–619. [CrossRef]
Jones, B., 2010, “Gas Turbine Combustor Design,” Gas Turbine Combustors Short Course, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK.
Sampath, P., Verhiel, J., and McCalcdon, K., 2003, “Low Emission Technology for Small Aviation Gas Turbines,” AIAA Paper No. 2003-2564. [CrossRef]
Gupta, A. K., Lilley, D. G., and Syred, N., 1984, Swirl Flows, Abacus, Tunbridge Wells, UK.
Jeng, S. M., Flohre, N. M., and Mongia, H., 2004, “Swirl Cup Modeling-Atomization,” AIAA Paper No. 2004-137. [CrossRef]
Holdeman, J. D., 1993, “Mixing of Multiple Jets With a Confined Subsonic Crossflow,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 19(1), pp. 31–70. [CrossRef]
Singh, R., 2010, Gas Turbine Combustor Course Notes, Vol. 1–2, School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK.
Perkins, P. J., Schultz, D. F., and Wear, J. D., 1971, “Full-Scale Tests of a Short-Length, Double-Annular Ram-Induction Turbojet Combustor for Supersonic Flight,” NASA Technical Note No. TN D-6254.
Beer, J. M., 1972, Combustion Aerodynamics, Applied Science Publishers Ltd, London.
Smith, H. C., Pineda, D. I., Zak, C. D., and Ellzey, J. L., “Conversion of Jet Fuel and Butanol to Syngas by Filtration,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 38(2103), pp. 879–889. [CrossRef]
Mongia, H. C., 2004, “Combining Lefebvre's Correlations With Combustor CFD,” AIAA Technical Paper No. 2004-3544. [CrossRef]
McBride, B. J. and Gordon, S., 1992, “Computer Program for Calculating and Fitting Thermodynamic Functions,” NASA Report No. RP-1271.
European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), 2013, “ICAO Aircraft Engine Emissions Databank,” accessed July 23, 2013, http://easa.europa.eu/environment/edb/aircraft-engine-emissions.php.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Flow chart of the classic combustor design methodology [2]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Relation between the combustion efficiency and θ-parameter [11]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Scheme of a dump diffuser [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Graph showing the value of θ corresponding to the least total pressure loss (in gradient) and selected pressure loss for the model combustor (in black) with respect to the area ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Jet from a hole into a cross flow [6]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Typical double cooling wall (adapted from Ref. [6])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Geometric parameters of an axial swirler

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Variation of efficiency with the change in Vd and Vp

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Double annular ram induction combustor sketch [17]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Combustion efficiencies at FAR = 0.010

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Combustion efficiencies at FAR = 0.015

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

NOx emissions at various operating conditions for FAR = 0.010 and 0.015

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Radially staged combustor flame tube with cooling and dilution holes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Axially staged double annular combustor flame tube

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

3-D rendering of the model swirler

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Result of combustion efficiency versus Pt3 for different FAR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Graph of combustion efficiency versus Pt3 for variable FAR [17]



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In