Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Analysis of In-Cylinder Turbulent Flows in a DISI Gasoline Engine With a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Quadruple Decomposition

[+] Author and Article Information
Wenjin Qin

School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: qinwenjin0814@gmail.com

Maozhao Xie

School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: xmz@dlut.edu.cn

Ming Jia

School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China

Tianyou Wang, Daming Liu

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received March 26, 2014; final manuscript received April 23, 2014; published online May 28, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(11), 111506 (May 28, 2014) (15 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1167; doi: 10.1115/1.4027658 History: Received March 26, 2014; Revised April 23, 2014

The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is applied to analyze the particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement data and large eddy simulation (LES) result from an in-cylinder turbulence flow field in a four-valve direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine. The instantaneous flow fields are decomposed into four parts, namely, mean field, coherent field, transition field and turbulent field, respectively, by the POD quadruple decomposition. The filtering method for separating the four flow parts is based on examining the relevance and correlations between different flow fields reconstructed with various POD mode numbers, and the corresponding reconstructed fields have been verified by their statistical properties. Then, the in-cylinder flow evolution and cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) are studied separately upon the four field parts. Results indicate that each one of the four field parts exhibits its own flow characteristics and has close connection with others. Furthermore, the mean part contains the most kinetic energy of the entire flow field and represents the bulk flow of the original in-cylinder velocity field; the CCV in this part could almost be neglected, while the coherent field part contains larger scale structures and the most fluctuating energy, and possesses the highest CCV level among the four parts.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Heywood, J., 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Hill, P., and Zhang, D., 1994, “The Effects of Swirl and Tumble on Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 20(5), pp. 373–429. [CrossRef]
Xie, M., 2005, “Computational Combustion for Internal Combustion Engine,” Dalian University of Technology Publishing House, Dalian, China.
Ozdor, N., Dulger, M., and Sher, E., 1994, “Cyclic Variability in Spark Ignition Engines—A Literature Survey,” SAE Technical Paper No. 940987. [CrossRef]
Lumley, J., 1967, “The Structure of Inhomogeneous Turbulent Flows,” Atmospheric Turbulence and Radio Wave Propagation, Nauka, Moscow, Russia, pp. 166–178.
Lumley, J., 1981, “Coherent Structures in Turbulence,” Symposium on Transition and Turbulence in Fluids, Madison, WI, October 13-15.
Holmes, P., Lumley, J. L., and Berkooz, G., 1998, Turbulence, Coherent Structures, Dynamical Systems and Symmetry, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.
Payne, F., and Lumley, J., 1967, “Large Eddy Structure of the Turbulent Wake Behind a Circular Cylinder,” Phys. Fluids, 10(9), pp. 194–196. [CrossRef]
Bakewell, Jr., H. P., and Lumley, J. L., 1967, “Viscous Sublayer and Adjacent Wall Region in Turbulent Pipe Flow,” Phys. Fluids, 10(9), pp. 1880–1889. [CrossRef]
Hilberg, D., Lazik, W., and Fiedler, H., 1994, “The Application of Classical Pod and Snapshot Pod in a Turbulent Shear Layer With Periodic Structures,” Appl. Sci. Res., 53(3), pp. 283–290. [CrossRef]
Erdil, A., Kodal, A., and Aydin, K., 2002, “Decomposition of Turbulent Velocity Fields in an SI Engine,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 68(2), pp. 91–110. [CrossRef]
Raposo, J., Hentschel, W., and Merzkirch, W., 2000, “Analysis of the Dynamical Behavior of Coherent Structures in In-Cylinder Flows of Internal Combustion Engines,” 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 10-13.
Borée, J., Marc, D., Bazile, R., and Lecordier, B., 1999, “On the Behavior of a Large Scale Tumbling Vortex Flow Submitted to Compression,” Proc. ESAIM7(6), pp. 56–65. [CrossRef]
Borée, J., Maurel, S., and Bazile, R., 2002, “Disruption of a Compressed Vortex,” Phys. Fluids, 14(7), pp. 2543–2556. [CrossRef]
Cosadia, I., Borée, J., Charnay, G., and Dumont, P., 2006, “Cyclic Variations of the Swirling Flow in a Diesel Transparent Engine,” Exp. Fluids, 41(1), pp. 115–134. [CrossRef]
Cosadia, I., Borée, J., and Dumont, P., 2007, “Coupling Time-Resolved PIV Flow-Fields and Phase-Invariant Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for the Description of the Parameters Space in a Transparent Diesel Engine,” Exp. Fluids, 43(2), pp. 357–370. [CrossRef]
Druault, P., Guibert, P., and Alizon, F., 2005, “Use of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for Time Interpolation From PIV Data,” Exp. Fluids, 39(6), pp. 1009–1023. [CrossRef]
Kapitza, L., Imberdis, O., Bensler, H., Willand, J., and Thévenin, D., 2010, “An Experimental Analysis of the Turbulent Structures Generated by the Intake Port of a DISI-Engine,” Exp. Fluids, 48(2), pp. 265–280. [CrossRef]
Fogleman, M. A., 2005, “Low-Dimensional Models of Internal Combustion Engine Flows Using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition,” Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
Fogleman, M. A., Lumley, J., Rempfer, D., and Haworth, D., 2004, “Application of the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition to Datasets of Internal Combustion Engine Flows,” J. Turbul., 5, p. N23. [CrossRef]
Liu, K., and Haworth, D. C., 2011, “Development and Assessment of Pod for Analysis of Turbulent Flow in Piston Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-01-0830. [CrossRef]
Roudnitzky, S., Druault, P., and Guibert, P., 2006, “Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of In-Cylinder Engine Flow Into Mean Component, Coherent Structures and Random Gaussian Fluctuations,” J. Turbul., 7, p. 70. [CrossRef]
Druault, P., Delville, J., and Bonnet, J. P., 2005, “Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of the Mixing Layer Flow Into Coherent Structures and Turbulent Gaussian Fluctuations,” C. R. Mec., 333(11), pp. 824–829. [CrossRef]
Liu, D., 2008, “Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow and Performance in SI Engine With Variable Valve Actuation,” Ph.D. thesis, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
Wang, G., 2010, “Characterization of In-Cylinder Flow in a DISI Engine With Variable Valve Lift,” Ph.D. thesis, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
Wang, T., Liu, D., Zhang, X., Zhang, D., Liu, S., and Zhao, H., 2008, “Study of the In-Cylinder Flow Characteristics of Spark Ignition Engine Under Variable Valve Lift,” Trans. CSICE, 26(5), pp. 420–428. [CrossRef]
Pope, S. B., 2000, Turbulent Flows, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.
Pope, S. B., 2004, “Ten Questions Concerning the Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows,” New J. Phys., 6, pp. 35–58. [CrossRef]
Celik, I., Yavuz, I., and Smirnov, A., 2001, “Large Eddy Simulations of In-Cylinder Turbulence for Internal Combustion Engines: A Review,” Int. J. Engine Res., 2(2), pp. 119–148. [CrossRef]
German, M., 1992, “Turbulence: The Filtering Approach,” J. Fluid Mech., 238, pp. 325–336. [CrossRef]
Lilly, D. K., 1992, “A Proposed Modification of the Germano Subgrid-Scale Closure Method,” Phys. Fluids A, 4(3), pp. 633–635. [CrossRef]
Amsden, A. A., 1997, “KIVA-3V: A Block-Structured Kiva Program for Engines With Vertical or Canted Valves,” Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, Technical Report No. LA-13313-MS.
Berkooz, G., Holmes, P., and Lumley, J. L., 1993, “The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition in the Analysis of Turbulent Flows,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 25(1), pp. 539–575. [CrossRef]
Sirovich, L., 1987, “Turbulence and the Dynamics of Coherent Structures. Part I: Coherent Structures,” Q. Appl. Math., 45(3), pp. 561–571.
Manhart, M., and Wengle, H., 1993, “A Spatiotemporal Decomposition of a Fully Inhomogeneous Turbulent Flow Field,” Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 5(4), pp. 223–242. [CrossRef]
Vu, T. T., and Guibert, P., 2012, “Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis for Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Engine Flow. Effect of a Control Device in an Inlet Pipe,” Exp. Fluids, 52(6), pp. 1519–1532. [CrossRef]
Pinsky, M., Shapiro, M., Khain, A., and Wirzberger, H., 2004, “A Statistical Model of Strains in Homogeneous and Isotropic Turbulence,” Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, 191(3), pp. 297–313. [CrossRef]
Alfonsi, G., 2006, “Coherent Structures of Turbulence: Methods of Education and Results,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 59(6), pp. 307–323. [CrossRef]
Haller, G., 2005, “An Objective Definition of a Vortex,” J. Fluid Mech., 525, pp. 1–26. [CrossRef]
Hunt, J. C. R., Wray, A. A., and Moin, P., 1988, “Eddies, Stream, and Convergence Zones in Turbulent Flows,” Center for Turbulence Research Report, Stanford, CA, Report No. CTR-S88, pp. 193–208.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The computational mesh of the engine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Measurement planes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Kinetic energy evolution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Kinetic energy distribution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

POD modes comparison at 150 °CA ATDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

POD modes comparison at 270 °CA ATDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Correlation of velocity fields as a function of the eliminated modes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Evolution of the velocity field correlation among the original instantaneous fields

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Correlation between the reconstruction fields with adjacent modes numbers in the forward direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Evolution of the spatially averaged flatness as a function of the eliminated modes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

PDF of turbulent velocity field at 270°ATDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Instantaneous velocity fields and the corresponding mean, coherent and turbulent parts in cycle 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Vorticity fields in the 3D view in cycle 3 (Q = 105s−1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Evolution of the energy distributions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Correlation between the reconstruction fields with adjacent modes numbers in the backward direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Evolution of the spatially averaged skewness as a function of the eliminated modes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Velocity field at 270 °CA ATDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Cyclic variations of four velocity field parts

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Velocity field at 150 °CA ATDC



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In