Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Experimental Study of Gas Turbine Combustion With Elevated Fuel Temperatures

[+] Author and Article Information
Heather K. Wiest

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories,
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47906
e-mail: hwiest@purdue.edu

Stephen D. Heister

Professor and Director
Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories,
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47906
e-mail: heister@purdue.edu

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received May 12, 2014; final manuscript received June 12, 2014; published online July 15, 2014. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(12), 121507 (Jul 15, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1233; doi: 10.1115/1.4027907 History: Received May 12, 2014; Revised June 12, 2014

The effects of elevated fuel temperatures on the performance and emissions of a Rolls–Royce 501K combustor with a modified fuel injector designed to handle two-phase flow is investigated in this study. A series of tests were run using Jet-A fuel at ambient, 250, 450, and 600 °F fuel temperatures. The influence of the new fuel injector design was compared with previously collected test data using a legacy 501 K fuel injector. In addition to conventional pressure and temperature instrumentation, high frequency pressure measurements and emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were recorded. In order to mitigate autoxidative coking, nitrogen sparging and catalytic deoxygenation were employed to remove dissolved oxygen from the fuel during high temperature tests. Oxygen levels in the fuel prior to heating were on average less than 0.2% of fully saturated values. Possible variations in fuel makeup and density due to the deoxygenation methods are discussed. At the highest fuel temperatures, test conditions with combustion pressures below the vaporization pressure of the fuel led to lower combustion efficiencies most likely due to flashing in the injector. The trends in combustion efficiency and emissions levels due to increasing fuel temperatures are analyzed in this paper.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental facility

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Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the 501K combustion rig

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Fig. 3

GC-MS results for primary carbon atom content

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Fig. 4

Saturation curve for JP-8 with test points

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Fig. 5

Combustion efficiency for tests with modified fuel injector

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Fig. 6

NOx EI for tests with modified fuel injector

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Fig. 7

CO EI for tests with modified fuel injector

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Fig. 8

UHC EI for tests with modified fuel injector

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Fig. 9

Emissions comparison at low air flow conditions for legacy and modified fuel injector designs



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