Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

Systematic Fluid Selection for Organic Rankine Cycles and Performance Analysis for a Combined High and Low Temperature Cycle

[+] Author and Article Information
Maximilian Roedder, Christoph Laux

Faculty of Mechanical and Process Engineering,
University of Applied Sciences Duesseldorf,
Josef-Gockeln-Str. 9,
Duesseldorf 40474, Germany

Matthias Neef

Faculty Mechanical and Process Engineering,
University of Applied Sciences Duesseldorf,
Josef-Gockeln-Str. 9,
Duesseldorf 40474, Germany
e-mail: matthias.neef@hs-duesseldorf.de

Klaus-P. Priebe

Castroper Str. 112,
Dortmund 44357, Germany

Contributed by the Cycle Innovations Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 13, 2015; final manuscript received August 12, 2015; published online September 22, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(3), 031701 (Sep 22, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1272; doi: 10.1115/1.4031361 History: Received July 13, 2015; Revised August 12, 2015

The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is an established thermodynamic process that converts waste heat to electric energy. Due to the wide range of organic working fluids available the fluid selection adds an additional degree-of-freedom to the early design phase of an ORC process. Despite thermodynamic aspects such as the temperature level of the heat source, other technical, economic, and safety aspects have to be considered. For the fluid selection process in this paper, 22 criteria were identified in six main categories while distinguishing between elimination (EC) and tolerance criteria (TC). For an ORC design, the suggested method follows a practical engineering approach and can be used as a structured way to limit the number of interesting working fluids before starting a detailed performance analysis of the most promising candidates. For the first time, the selection process is applied to a two-stage reference cycle, which uses the waste heat of a large reciprocating engine for cogeneration power plants. It consists of a high temperature (HT) and a low temperature (LT) cycle in which the condensation heat of the HT cycle provides the heat input of the LT cycle. After the fluid selection process, the detailed thermodynamic cycle design is carried out with a thermodynamic design tool that also includes a database for organic working fluids. The investigated ORC cycle shows a net thermal efficiency of about 17.4% in the HT cycle with toluene as the working fluid and 6.2% in LT cycle with isobutane as the working fluid. The electric efficiency of the cogeneration plant increases from 40.4% to 46.97% with the both stages of the two-stage ORC in operation.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Fluids , Cycles
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Quoilin, S. , Van Den Broek, M. , Declaye, S. , Dewallef, P. , and Lemort, V. , 2013, “ Techno-Economic Survey of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Systems,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 22, pp. 168–186. [CrossRef]
Papadopoulos, A. I. , Stijepovic, M. , and Linke, P. , 2010, “ On the Systematic Design and Selection of Optimal Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 30(6–7), pp. 760–769. [CrossRef]
Stijepovic, M. Z. , Linke, P. , Papadopoulos, A. I. , and Grujic, A. S. , 2012, “ On the Role of Working Fluid Properties in Organic Rankine Cycle Performance,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 36, pp. 406–413. [CrossRef]
Saleh, B. , Koglbauer, G. , Wendland, M. , and Fischer, J. , 2007, “ Working Fluids for Low-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycles,” Energy, 32(7), pp. 1210–1221. [CrossRef]
Lai, N. A. , Wendland, M. , and Fischer, J. , 2011, “ Working Fluids for High-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycles,” Energy, 36(1), pp. 199–211. [CrossRef]
Drescher, U. , and Brüggemann, D. , 2007, “ Fluid Selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in Biomass Power and Heat Plants,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 27(1), pp. 223–228. [CrossRef]
Mazur, V. A. , and Nikitin, D. , 2011, “ Sustainable Working Media Selection for Renewable Energy Technologies,” World Renewable Energy Congress (WREC 2011), Linköping, Sweden, May 8–13, pp. 856–866.
Kalra, C. , Becquin, G. , Jackson, J. , Laursen, A. L. , Chen, H. , Myers, K. , Hardy, A. , Klockow, H. , and Zia, J. , 2012, “ High-Potential Working Fluids and Cycle Concepts for Next-Generation Binary Organic Rankine Cycle for Enhanced Geothermal Systems,” 37th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford, CA, Jan. 30–Feb. 1, Paper No. SGP-TR-194.
Breiing, A. , and Knosala, R. , 1997, Bewerten Technischer Systeme: Theoretische und Methodische Grundlagen Bewertungstechnischer Entscheidungshilfen, Springer, Berlin.
Bao, J. , and Zhao, L. , 2013, “ A Review of Working Fluid and Expander Selections for Organic Rankine Cycle,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 24, pp. 325–342. [CrossRef]
Mohanraj, M. , Jayaraj, S. , and Muraleedharan, C. , 2009, “ Environmental Friendly Alternatives to Halogenated Refrigerants—A Review,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, 3(1), pp. 108–119. [CrossRef]
Steag Energy Services, 2014, EBSILON®Professional Program Documentation.
Lemmon, E. W. , Huber, M. L. , and McLinden, M. O. , 2013, NIST Standard Reference Database 23, Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties REFPROP, User's Guide, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD.
Chen, H. , Goswami, D. Y. , and Stefanakos, E. K. , 2010, “ A Review of Thermodynamic Cycles and Working Fluids for the Conversion of Low-Grade Heat,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 14(9), pp. 3059–3067. [CrossRef]
IFA, 2014, “ GESTIS Information System on Hazardous Substances,” Institut für Arbeitsschutz der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung (German Social Accident Insurance), Sankt Augustin, Germany, www.dguv.de/ifa/gestis-database
UNECE, 2013, “ Globally Harmonized System of Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Chemicals,” GHS Rev.5, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, Switzerland, http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/ghs/ghs_welcome_e.html
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2012, Handbook for the Montreal-Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 9th ed., United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, http://ozone.unep.org/Publications/MP_Handbook/MP-Handbook-2012.pdf
United Nations Organization, 1998, “ Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,” United Nations, New York, http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf
Lai, N. A. , and Fischer, J. , 2012, “ Efficiencies of Power Flash Cycles,” Energy, 44(1), pp. 1017–1027. [CrossRef]
“Wasserhaushaltsgesetz–WHG” (German National Law for Water), BGBl. I, 2014, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/whg_2009/gesamt.pdf
Angelino, G. , and Colonna di Paliano, P. , 2000, “ Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) for Energy Recovery From Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells,” 35th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference and Exhibit (IECEC), Las Vegas, NV, July 24-28, pp. 1400–1409.
Harinck, J. , Guardone, A. , and Colonna, P. , 2009, “ The Influence of Molecular Complexity on Expanding Flows of Ideal and Dense Gases,” Phys. Fluids, 21(8), p. 086101. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Course of the selection procedure (flow chart)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Simple Rankine cycle (without recuperator)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Two-stage ORC with simulation parameters



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In