Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Investigation of Swirl Ratio Impact on In-Cylinder Flow in an SIDI Optical Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Hanyang Zhuang

University of Michigan—Shanghai Jiao Tong
University Joint Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: zhuanghany11@sjtu.edu.cn

David L. S. Hung

University of Michigan—Shanghai Jiao Tong
University Joint Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: dhung@sjtu.edu.cn

Jie Yang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: yangjiejt@sjtu.edu.cn

Shaoxiong Tian

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: xiongbaichi@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 18, 2015; final manuscript received December 1, 2015; published online March 1, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(8), 081505 (Mar 01, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1534; doi: 10.1115/1.4032419 History: Received November 18, 2015; Revised December 01, 2015

Advanced powertrain technologies have improved engine performance with higher power output, lower exhaust emission, and better controllability. Chief among them is the development of spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines in which the in-cylinder processes control the air flow motion, fuel–air mixture formation, combustion, and soot formation. Specifically, intake air with strong swirl motion is usually introduced to form a directional in-cylinder flowfield. This approach improves the mixing process of air and fuel as well as the propagation of flame. In this study, the effect of intake air swirl on in-cylinder flow characteristics was experimentally investigated. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) was conducted in an optical SIDI engine to record the flowfield on a swirl plane. The intake air swirl motion was achieved by adjusting the opening of a swirl ratio (SR) control valve which was installed in one of the two intake ports in the optical engine. Ten opening angles of the SR control valve were adjusted to produce an intake SR from 0.55 to 5.68. The flow structures at the same crank angle degree (CAD), but under different SR, were compared and analyzed using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The flow dominant structures and variation structures were interpreted by different POD modes. The first POD mode captured the most dominant flowfield structure characteristics; the corresponding mode coefficients showed good linearity with the measured SR at the compression stroke when the flow was swirling and steady. During the intake stroke, strong intake air motion took place, and the structures and coefficients of the first modes varied along different SR. These modes captured the flow properties affected by the intake swirl motion. Meanwhile, the second and higher modes captured the variation feature of the flow at various CADs. In summary, this paper demonstrated a promising approach of using POD to interpret the effectiveness of swirl control valve on in-cylinder swirl flow characteristics, providing better understanding for engine intake system design and optimization.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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Fig. 1

(a) Optical engine, (b) cylinder head configuration (dotted circle indicates viewable area through piston quartz insert), (c) quartz liner, and (d) optical piston with quartz insert

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Fig. 2

The setup of PIV experiment with the view of the swirl plane and the location of the swirl motion control valve

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Fig. 3

The swirl control valve appearance including the measured SR at selected valve position

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Fig. 4

Schematic of POD on ensemble average flowfield at ten swirl valve positions at −80 CAD ATDC

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Fig. 5

Modes 1 and 2 of the ensemble average flowfields at −80 CAD ATDC of ten different SR. Valve location is overlaid and swirl control valve is indicated.

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Fig. 6

The correlation of POD mode 1 coefficients and the measured SR at different swirl control valve positions at −80 CAD ATDC

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Fig. 7

Schematic of POD analysis of different SR at −300 CAD ATDC for example

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Fig. 8

Energy fraction captured by the first three modes of all the cycles in ten SR at different crank angles. Note the scale of mode 1 is twice as the scale of modes 2 and 3.

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Fig. 9

Coefficients and mode structures of modes 1 and 2 at −300 CAD ATDC at different SR

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Fig. 10

Coefficients and mode structures of modes 1 and 2 at −240 CAD ATDC at different SR

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Fig. 11

Coefficients and mode structures of modes 1 and 2 at −180 CAD ATDC at different SR



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