Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Lumped Capacitance and Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Conjugate Heat Transfer Modeling of an Automotive Turbocharger

[+] Author and Article Information
R. D. Burke

Powertrain and Vehicle Research Centre,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK
e-mail: R.D.Burke@bath.ac.uk

C. D. Copeland, T. Duda, M. A. Rayes-Belmote

Powertrain and Vehicle Research Centre,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 23, 2015; final manuscript received January 5, 2016; published online March 22, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(9), 092602 (Mar 22, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1489; doi: 10.1115/1.4032663 History: Received July 23, 2015; Revised January 05, 2016

One-dimensional wave-action engine models have become an essential tool within engine development including stages of component selection, understanding system interactions, and control strategy development. Simple turbocharger models are seen as a weak link in the accuracy of these simulation tools, and advanced models have been proposed to account for phenomena including heat transfer. In order to run within a full engine code, these models are necessarily simple in structure yet are required to describe a highly complex 3D problem. This paper aims to assess the validity of one of the key assumptions in simple heat transfer models, namely, that the heat transfer between the compressor casing and intake air occurs only after the compression process. Initially, a sensitivity study was conducted on a simple lumped capacity thermal model of a turbocharger. A new partition parameter was introduced αA, which divides the internal wetted area of the compressor housing into pre- and postcompression. The sensitivity of heat fluxes to αA was quantified with respect to the sensitivity to turbine inlet temperature (TIT). At low speeds, the TIT was the dominant effect on compressor efficiency, whereas at high speed αA had a similar influence to TIT. However, modeling of the conduction within the compressor housing using an additional thermal resistance caused changes in heat flows of less than 10%. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was undertaken using a number of cases approximating different values of αA. It was seen that when considering a case similar to αA = 0, meaning that heat transfer on the compressor side is considered to occur only after the compression process, significant temperature could build up in the impeller area of the compressor housing, indicating the importance of the precompression heat path. The 3D simulation was used to estimate a realistic value for αA which was suggested to be between 0.15 and 0.3. Using a value of this magnitude in the lumped capacitance model showed that at low speed there would be less than 1% point effect on apparent efficiency which would be negligible compared to the 8% point seen as a result of TIT. In contrast, at high speeds, the impact of αA was similar to that of TIT, both leading to approximately 1% point apparent efficiency error.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Turner, J. W. G. , Popplewell, A. , Patel, R. , Johnson, T. R. , Darnton, N. J. , Richardson, S. , Bredda, S. W. , Tudor, R. J. , Bithell, C. I. , Jackson, R. , Remmert, S. M. , Cracknell, R. F. , Fernandes, J. X. , Lewis, A. G. J. , Akehurst, S. , Brace, C. J. , Copeland, C. , Martinez-Botas, R. , Romagnoli, A. , and Burluka, A. A. , 2014, “ Ultra Boost for Economy: Extending the Limits of Extreme Engine Downsizing,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 7(1), pp. 387–417. [CrossRef]
Serrano, J. R. , Olmeda, P. , Tiseira, A. , García-Cuevas, L. M. , and Lefebvre, A. , 2013, “ Importance of Mechanical Losses Modeling in the Performance Prediction of Radial Turbochargers Under Pulsating Flow Conditions,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 6(2), pp. 729–738. [CrossRef]
Shaaban, S. , Seume, J. , Berndt, R. , Pucher, H. , and Linnhoff, H. J. , 2006, “ Part-Load Performance Prediction of Turbocharged Engines,” C647/019 Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging, Woodhead Publishing and CRC Press, London, pp. 131–144.
Galindo, J. , Luján, J. M. , Serrano, J. R. , Dolz, V. , and Guilain, S. , 2006, “ Description of a Heat Transfer Model Suitable to Calculate Transient Processes of Turbocharged Diesel Engines With One-Dimensional Gas-Dynamic Codes,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 26(1), pp. 66–76. [CrossRef]
Podevin, P. , Toussaint, M. , Richard, G. , and Farinole, G. , 2002, “ Performances of Turbocharger at Low Speed,” Compressor & Turbine Stage Flow Path Theory, Experiments & User Verification (SYMKOM02) Congress, Lodz, Poland, Oct. 23-25.
Reyes-Belmonte, M. A. , 2013, “ Contribution to the Experimental Characterization and 1-D Modelling of Turbochargers for IC Engines,” Doctoral thesis, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.
Guzzella, L. , 2009, Introduction to Modeling and Control of Internal Combustion Engine Systems, Springer, Berlin.
Olmeda, P. , Dolz, V. , Arnau, F. J. , and Reyes-Belmonte, M. A. , 2013, “ Determination of Heat Flows Inside Turbochargers by Means of a One Dimensional Lumped Model,” Math. Comput. Modell., 57(7–8), pp. 1847–1852. [CrossRef]
Serrano, J. R. , Olmeda, P. , Arnau, F. J. , Reyes-Belmonte, M. A. , and Lefebvre, A. , 2013, “ Importance of Heat Transfer Phenomena in Small Turbochargers for Passenger Car Applications,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 6(2), pp. 716–728. [CrossRef]
Burke, R. D. , Olmeda, P. , Arnau, F. , and Reyes-Belmonte, M. A. , 2014, “ Modelling of Turbocharger Heat Transfer Under Stationary and Transient Conditions,” 11th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging, London, May 13–May 14.
Verstraete, T. , Alsalihi, Z. , and Van den Braembussche, R. A. , 2007, “ Numerical Study of the Heat Transfer in Micro Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129(4), pp. 835–841. [CrossRef]
Serrano, J. R. , Guardiola, C. , Dolz, V. , Tiseira, A. , and Cervelló, C. , 2007, “ Experimental Study of the Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature Influence on Turbocharger Performance,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-1559.
Cormerais, M. , Hetet, J. F. , Chessé, P. , and Maiboom, A. , 2006, “ Heat Transfer Analysis in a Turbocharger Compressor: Modelling and Experiments,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2006-01-0023.
Bohn, D. , Heuer, T. , and Kusterer, K. , 2005, “ Conjugate Flow and Heat Transfer Investigation of a Turbo Charger,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 127(3), pp. 663–669. [CrossRef]
Hagelstein, D. , Beyer, B. , Seume, J. , Rautenberg, M. , and Hasemann, H. , 2002, “ Heuristical View on the Non-Adiabatic Coupling System of Combustion Engine and Turbocharger,” 7th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging, London, May 14-15, Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd., IMechE, London, Paper No. C602/015/2002.
Shaaban, S. , and Seume, J. , 2006, “ Analysis of Turbocharger Non-Adiabatic Performance,” 8th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging, London, May 17-18, pp. 119–130.
Baines, N. , Wygant, K. , and Dris, A. , 2009, “ The Analysis of Heat Transfer in Automotive Turbochargers,” ASME J. Gas Eng. Turbines Power, 132(4), p. 042301.
Sidorow, A. , Isermann, R. , Cianflone, F. , and Landsmann, G. , 2011, “ Comparison of a Turbocharger Model Based on Isentropic Efficiency Maps With a Parametric Approach Based on Euler's Turbo-Machinery Equation,” 18th IFAC World Congress, Milan, Italy, Aug. 28–Sept. 2.
Bohn, D. , Heuer, T. , and Kusterer, K. , 2003, “ Conjugate Flow and Heat Transfer Investigation of a Turbocharger—Part I: Numerical Results,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38445.
Burke, R. D. , 2014, “ Analysis and Modeling of the Transient Thermal Behavior of Automotive Turbochargers,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(10), p. 101511. [CrossRef]
Burke, R. D. , Copeland, C. , and Duda, T. , 2014, “ Investigation Into the Assumptions for Lumped Capacitance Modelling of Turbocharger Heat Transfer,” Simulation and Testing for Automotive Electronics V, C. Gühmann , J. Riese, and T.-M. Wolter , eds., Expert Verlag, Renningen, Germany, pp. 65–81.
Eriksson, L. , 2002, “ Mean Value Models for Exhaust System Temperatures,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-0374.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Diabatic processes in a turbocharger: (a) compressor process and (b) turbine expansion process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Heat transfer processes in a turbocharger

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Two-node thermal network used in the model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Heat transfer from the compressor casing to the environment (50 krpm and 150 krpm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Heat transfer from the central housing to the compressor casing (50 krpm and 150 krpm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Heat transfer between compressor housing and intake air before compression at (a) 50 and 150 krpm and (b) 50 krpm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Heat transfer between compressor housing and air post compression at (a) 50 and 150 krpm and (b) 50 krpm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Diagram of the two-node compressor thermal network

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Heat transfer to the precompressed air for the assumption of two compressor nodes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Heat transfer to the postcompressed air for the assumption of two compressor nodes (50 krpm and 150 krpm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Compressor wall boundary conditions: (a) case 1, (b) case 2 (bearing housing indication), and (c) measuring planes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Compressor housing temperature profiles from conjugate heat transfer calculations for (a) case 1—externally insulated housing, (b) case 2—externally insulated without precompression heat transfer, and (c) case 3—fully diabatic housing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Single line flow path across compressor model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

(a) Pressure and (b) temperature distribution along single flow path inside the compressor case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

(a) Effect of αa and TIT on compressor efficiency determination (50 krpm), (b) effect of αa for a given temperature (150 krpm − 500 °C), and (c) effect of TIT for a given αa (150 krpm − αa = 0.2)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In