Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

High-Pressure Electronic Fuel Injection for Small-Displacement Single-Cylinder Diesel Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew L. Carpenter

Mainstream Engineering Corporation,
Rockledge, FL 32955
e-mail: acarpenter@mainstream-engr.com

Robert E. Mayo

Mainstream Engineering Corporation,
Rockledge, FL 32955
e-mail: rmayo@mainstream-engr.com

Jerald G. Wagner

Mainstream Engineering Corporation,
Rockledge, FL 32955
e-mail: jwagner@mainstream-engr.com

Paul E. Yelvington

Mainstream Engineering Corporation,
Rockledge, FL 32955
e-mail: pyelvington@mainstream-engr.com

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 8, 2016; final manuscript received February 19, 2016; published online April 12, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(10), 102808 (Apr 12, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1060; doi: 10.1115/1.4032920 History: Received February 08, 2016; Revised February 19, 2016

Small-displacement single-cylinder diesel engines employ mechanically actuated fuel injection systems. These mechanically governed systems, while robust and low cost, lack the ability to fully vary injection parameters, such as timing, pulse duration, and injection pressure. The ability of a particular injection system to vary these injection parameters impacts engine efficiency, power, noise, and emissions. Modern, multicylinder automotive engines employ some form of electronically controlled injection to take advantage of the benefits of fully variable injection, including advanced strategies such as multipulse injections and rate shaping. Modern diesel electronic fuel injection (EFI) systems also operate at considerably higher injection pressures than mechanical fuel systems used in small-bore industrial engines. As the cost of electronic fuel systems continues to decrease and the demand for high-efficiency engines increases, EFI becomes a more viable option for incorporation into small industrial diesel engines. In particular, this technology may be well-suited for demanding and critical applications, such as military power generation. In this study, a small-bore single-cylinder diesel was retrofit with a custom high-pressure EFI system. Compared to the mechanical injector, the electronic, common-rail injector had a 50% smaller orifice diameter and was designed for a fourfold higher injection pressure. The mechanical governor was also replaced with an electronic speed controller. The baseline and modified engines were installed on a dynamometer, and measurements of exhaust emissions, fuel consumption, brake torque, and in-cylinder pressure were made. The electronic injector leads to lower smoke opacity and NOx emissions, while CO and hydrocarbon emissions were observed to increase slightly, likely due to some wall wetting of fuel with the initial prototype injector. Testing with low ignition quality fuels was also performed, and the electronic fuel system enabled the engine to operate with fuel having a cetane number as low as 30.

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Fig. 1

Current profile for injector

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Fig. 2

Crank encoder and VR sensor setup (left) and 180 deg cam pickup (right)

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Fig. 3

Delphi DFI1.5 solenoid diesel injector

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Fig. 4

Nozzle orientation: midplane cut demonstrating 25 deg injector angle with 150 deg included spray angle

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Fig. 5

Nozzle orientation: 25 deg cut-plane of orthogonal nozzles with 150 deg included spray angle

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Fig. 6

Stock injection valve (left) and EFI injector fitted with conical adapter (right)

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Fig. 7

Schematic of an EFI system

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Fig. 8

In-cylinder pressure trace for various SOI (ϕ = 0.5)

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Fig. 9

Net indicated power for various SOI (ϕ = 0.5)

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Fig. 17

Low-quality fuel testing with diesel EFI

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Fig. 10

Torque comparison for EFI and baseline engine

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Fig. 14

THC EI comparison

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Fig. 15

Smoke opacity comparison

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Fig. 16

CA50 combustion phasing comparison



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