0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

# Experimental Study of the Interaction of Water Sprays With Swirling Premixed Natural Gas Flames

[+] Author and Article Information
Stephan Lellek

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany
e-mail: lellek@td.mw.tum.de

Christoph Barfuß, Thomas Sattelmayer

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 27, 2016; final manuscript received June 30, 2016; published online September 13, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(2), 021506 (Sep 13, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1279; doi: 10.1115/1.4034238 History: Received June 27, 2016; Revised June 30, 2016

## Abstract

Water injection is often used to control $NOx$ emissions or to increase power output from nonpremixed combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels. Since the emission level in premixed natural gas combustion is significantly lower than for nonpremixed combustion, water injection for emission reduction is usually not an issue. However, the increasing share of fluctuating power output from renewables motivates research activities on the improvement of the operational flexibility of combined cycle power plants. One aspect in that context is power augmentation by injection of liquid water in premixed combustors without drawbacks regarding emissions and flame stability. For research purposes, water injection technology has therefore recently been transferred to premixed combustors burning natural gas. In order to investigate the influence of water injection on premixed combustion of natural gas, an atmospheric single burner test rig has been set up at Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik, TU München. The test rig is equipped with a highly flexible water injection system to study the influence of water atomization behavior on flame shape, position, and stabilization. Presented investigations are conducted at gas turbine like preheating temperatures (673 K) and flame temperatures (1800–1950 K) to ensure high technical relevance. In this paper, the interaction between water injection, atomization and macroscopic flame behavior is outlined. Favorable and nonfavorable operating conditions of the water injection system are presented in order to clarify the influence of water atomization and vaporization on flame stability and the emission behavior of the test rig. Water spray quality is assessed externally with a Malvern laser diffraction spectrometer whereas spray distribution in the test rig is determined by means of Mie scattering images at reacting conditions. The flame shape is analyzed using time-averaged OH* chemiluminescence images while the efficiency of water injection at various operating points is evaluated using global emission concentration measurements. Finally, the important influence of the water injection system design on the combustor performance will be shown using combined Mie scattering and OH* chemiluminescence images. At constant adiabatic flame temperatures, a stable flame could be established for water-to-fuel ratios of up to 2.25. While only minor changes could be detected for the heat release distribution in the combustion chamber, the water distribution changes significantly while increasing the amount of water. Finally, changes in NOx emission concentrations can directly be related to water droplet sizes and the global water distribution in the combustion chamber.

<>

## References

Burnham, J. , Giuliani, M. , and Moeller, D. , 1987, “ Development, Installation, and Operating Result of a Steam Injection System (STIG) in a General Electric LM5000 Gas Generator,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 109(3), pp. 257–262.
Jonsson, M. , and Yan, J. , 2005, “ Humidified Gas Turbines: A Review of Proposed and Implemented Cycles,” Energy, 30(7), pp. 1013–1078.
Göke, S. , 2012, “ Ultra-Wet Combustion: An Experimental and Numerical Study,” Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität, Berlin.
Lellek, S. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2015, “ Influence of Water Injection on Heat Release Distribution, Lean Blowout and Emissions of a Premixed Swirl Flame in a Tubular Combustor,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42602.
Bhargava, A. , Colket, M. , Sowa, W. , Casleton, K. , and Maloney, D. , 2000, “ An Experimental and Modeling Study of Humid Air Premixed Flames,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 122(3), pp. 405–411.
Moore, M. , 1997, “ NOx Emission Control in Gas Turbines for Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Plant,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A: J. Power Energy, 211(1), pp. 43–52.
Stadlmair, N. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2016, “ Measurement and Analysis of Flame Transfer Functions in a Lean-Premixed, Swirl-Stabilized Combustor With Water Injection,” AIAA Paper No. 2016-1157.
Pavri, R. , and Moore, G. , 2001, “ Gas Turbine Emissions and Control,” GE Power Systems, Atlanta, GA, Report No. GER-4211.
Guo, H. , Neill, W. S. , and Smallwood, G. J. , 2008, “ A Numerical Study on the Effect of Water Addition on NO Formation in Counterflow CH4/Air Premixed Flames,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 130(5), p. 054502.
Mazas, A. , Fiorina, B. , Lacoste, D. , and Schuller, T. , 2011, “ Effects of Water Vapor Addition on the Laminar Burning Velocity of Oxygen-Enriched Methane Flames,” Combust. Flame, 158(12), pp. 2428–2440.
Zhao, D. , Yamashita, H. , Kitagawa, K. , Arai, N. , and Furuhata, T. , 2002, “ Behavior and Effect on NOx Formation of OH Radical in Methane-Air Diffusion Flame With Steam Addition,” Combust. Flame, 130(4), pp. 352–360.
Sangl, J. , Mayer, C. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2011, “ Dynamic Adaptation of Aerodynamic Flame Stabilization of a Premix Swirl Burner to Fuel Reactivity Using Fuel Momentum,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(7), p. 071501.
Düsen-Schlick, 2015, “SCHLICK Module System Range 940,” Technical Report, Düsen-Schlick GmbH, Untersiemau, Germany.
Lefebvre, A. , 1988, Atomization and Sprays, Taylor and Francis, West Lafayette, IN.
Pretzler, G. , Jäger, T. , Philipp, H. , and Woisetschläger, J. , 1992, “ Comparison of Different Methods of Abel Inversion Using Computer Simulated and Experimental Side-On Data,” Z. Naturforsch., 47a, pp. 955–970.
Lefebvre, A. , and Ballal, D. , 2010, Gas Turbine Combustion: Alternative Fuels and Emissions, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Joos, F. , 2006, Technische Verbrennung, Springer, Hamburg, Germany.

## Figures

Fig. 1

Scheme of the combustion test rig with water injection

Fig. 6

Spatial distribution of the droplet density for configuration C3 at m˙a,sec=4 g/s and different operating conditions

Fig. 2

Scheme of the dual fluid nozzles

Fig. 5

NOx concentration values for configuration C3 at different atomizing air mass flow rates in comparison to C1

Fig. 7

Combined OH* chemiluminescence images and droplet densities for configuration C3 at m˙a,sec=4 g/s and different operating conditions

Fig. 8

NOx concentrations for C2 and C3 at different atomizing air mass flow rates

Fig. 9

Droplet size distribution for different operating conditions. (a) C2, m˙a,sec = 4.0 g/s, Ω = 0.5, (b) C2, m˙a,sec  = 4.0 g/s, Ω = 1.5, (c) C3, m˙a,sec  = 4.0 g/s, Ω = 1.5, (d) C3, m˙a,sec  = 2.0 g/s, Ω = 1.5.

Fig. 10

D90 for different operating conditions

Fig. 11

Characteristic droplet diameter of the NOx increase

Fig. 3

OH* chemiluminescence intensities for configuration C3 with m˙a,sec =3 g/s and different water contents

Fig. 4

Axial position of the centroid of the OH* intensity for configuration C3 at different operating conditions in comparison to C1

## Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

### Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related Proceedings Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections