Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Experimental Investigation of Stall and Surge in a Multistage Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Enrico Munari, Michele Pinelli, Pier Ruggero Spina, Alessio Suman

Dipartimento di Ingegneria,
Università degli Studi di Ferrara,
Ferrara 44122, Italy

Mirko Morini

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale,
Università degli Studi di Parma,
Parma 43121, Italy

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 27, 2016; final manuscript received June 30, 2016; published online September 13, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(2), 022605 (Sep 13, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1281; doi: 10.1115/1.4034239 History: Received June 27, 2016; Revised June 30, 2016

Flow instability conditions, in particular during surge and stall phenomena, have always influenced the operational reliability of turbocompressors and have attracted significant interest resulting in extensive literature. Nowadays, this subject is still one of the most investigated because of its high relevance on centrifugal and axial compressor operating flow range, performance, and efficiency. Many researchers approach this important issue by developing numerical models, whereas others approach it through experimental studies specifically carried out in order to better comprehend this phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to experimentally analyze the stable and unstable operating conditions of an aeronautic turboshaft gas turbine axial–centrifugal compressor installed on a brand new test rig properly designed for this purpose. The test facility is set up in order to obtain (i) the compressor performance maps at rotational speeds up to 25,000 rpm and (ii) the compressor transient behavior during surge. By using two different test rig layouts, instabilities occurring in the compressor, beyond the peak of the characteristic curve, are identified and investigated. These two types of analysis are carried out, thanks to pressure, temperature, and mass flow sensors located in strategic positions along the circuit. These measurement sensors are part of a proper control and acquisition system, characterized by an adjustable sampling frequency. Thus, the desired operating conditions of the compressor in terms of mass flow and rotational speed and transient of these two parameters are regulated by this dedicated control system.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Spakovszky, Z. S. , 2004, “ Backward Travelling Rotating Stall Waves in Centrifugal Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 126(1), pp. 1–12. [CrossRef]
Cumpsty, N. A. , 1989, Compressor Aerodynamics, Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, UK.
Cousins, W. T. , 1996, “ The Dynamics of Stall and Surge Behavior in Axial-Centrifugal Compressors,” Ph.D. thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/29794
Gravdahl, J. T. , and Egeland, O. , 1999, Compressor Surge and Rotating Stall, Modeling and Control, Springer-Verlag, London.
Emmons, H. , Pearson, C. , and Grant, H. , 1955, “ Compressor Surge and Stall Propagation,” Trans. ASME, 77(4), pp. 455–469.
Greitzer, E. M. , 1976, “ Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors—Part I: Theoretical Compression System Model,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98(2), pp. 190–198. [CrossRef]
Greitzer, E. M. , and Moore, F. K. , 1986, “ A Theory of Post-Stall Transients in Axial Compression Systems—Part II: Application,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 108(2), pp. 231–239. [CrossRef]
Gravdahl, J. T. , and Egeland, O. , 1997, “ A Moore–Greitzer Axial Compressor Model With Spool Dynamics,” IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Vol. 5, pp. 4714–4719. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jan_Gravdahl/publication/3732471_A_Moore-Greitzer_axial_compressor_model_with_spool_dynamics/links/0c9605225805022110226050.pdf
Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , and Venturini, M. , 2006, “ Development of a One-Dimensional Modular Dynamic Model for the Simulation of Surge in Compression Systems,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129(3), pp. 437–447. [CrossRef]
Gravdahl, J. T. , Egeland, O. , and Vatland, S. O. , 2002, “ Drive Torque Actuation in Active Surge Control of Centrifugal Compressor,” Automatica, 38(11), pp. 1881–1893. [CrossRef]
Strazisar, A. J. , Bright, M. M. , Thorp, S. , Culley, D. E. , and Suder, K. L. , 2004, “ Compressor Stall Control Through Endwall Recirculation,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-54295.
Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , and Venturini, M. , 2007, “ Application of a One-Dimensional Modular Dynamic Model for Compressor Surge Avoidance,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27041.
Kurz, R. , and White, R. C. , 2004, “ Surge Avoidance in Gas Compression Systems,” ASME J. Turbomach., 126(4), pp. 501–506. [CrossRef]
Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , and Venturini, M. , 2007, “ Acoustic and Vibrational Analyses on a Multi-Stage Compressor for Unstable Behavior Precursor Identification,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27040.
Bettocchi, R. , Pinelli, M. , and Spina, P. R. , 2005, “ A Multistage Compressor Test Facility: Uncertainty Analysis and Preliminary Test Results,” ASME J. Eng. Gas. Turbines Power, 127(1), pp. 170–177. [CrossRef]
Bettocchi, R. , Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , Spina, P. R. , Venturini, M. , and Torsello, G. , 2011, “ Setup of an Experimental Facility for the Investigation of Wet Compression on a Multistage Compressor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(10), p. 102001. [CrossRef]
Bulot, N. , Ottavy, X. , and Trebinjac, I. , 2010, “ Unsteady Pressure Measurements in a High-Speed Centrifugal Compressor,” J. Therm. Sci., 19(1), pp. 34–41. [CrossRef]
Greitzer, E. M. , 1976, “ Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors—Part II: Experimental Results and Comparison With Theory,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98(2), pp. 199–211. [CrossRef]
Camp, T. R. , and Day, I . J. , 1998, “ A Study of Spike and Modal Stall Phenomena in a Low-Speed Axial Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(3), pp. 393–401. [CrossRef]
Spakovszky, Z. S. , and Roduner, C. H. , 2009, “ Spike and Modal Stall Inception in an Advanced Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 131(3), p. 031012. [CrossRef]
Day, I . J. , and Freeman, C. , 1994, “ The Unstable Behavior of Low and High Speed Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116(2), pp. 194–201. [CrossRef]
Day, I . J. , 2015, “ Stall, Surge and 75 Years of Research,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(1), p. 011001. [CrossRef]
Gallus, H. , and Hoenen, H. , 1986, “ Experimental Investigation of Airfoil and Endwall Boundary Layers in a Subsonic Compressor Stage,” ASME Paper No. 86-GT-143.
Inoue, M. , Kuroumaru, M. , Iwamoto, T. , and Ando, Y. , 1991, “ Detection of a Rotating Stall Precursor in Isolated Axial Flow Compressor Rotors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113(2), pp. 281–287. [CrossRef]
Dhingra, M. , Neumeier, Y. , and Prasad, J. , 2003, “ Stall and Surge Precursors in Axial Compressors,” AIAA Paper No. 2003-4425.
Christensen, D. , Cantin, P. , Gutz, D. , Szucz, P. , Wadia, A. , Armor, J. , Dhingra, M. , Neumeier, Y. , and Prasad, J. , 2008, “ Development and Demonstration of a Stability Management System for Gas Turbine Engines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130(3), p. 031011. [CrossRef]
Dodds, J. , and Vahdati, M. , 2015, “ Rotating Stall Observations in a High Speed Compressor—Part I: Experimental Study,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(5), p. 051002. [CrossRef]
Galindo, J. , Tiseira, A. , Arnau, F. J. , and Lang, R. , 2013, “ On-Engine Measurement of Turbocharger Surge Limit,” Exp. Tech., 37(1), pp. 47–54. [CrossRef]
Galindo, J. , Serrano, J. R. , Guardiola, C. , and Cervelló, C. , 2006, “ Surge Limit Definition in a Specific Test Bench for the Characterization of Automotive Turbochargers,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 30(5), pp. 449–462. [CrossRef]
Fink, D. A. , Cumpsty, N. A. , and Greitzer, E. M. , 1992, “ Surge Dynamics in a Free-Spool Centrifugal Compressor System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114(2), pp. 321–332. [CrossRef]
Liu, A. X. , and Zheng, X. Q. , 2013, “ Methods of Surge Point Judgment for Compressor Experiments,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 51(11), pp. 204–213. [CrossRef]
Kabalyk, K. , Kryłłowicz, W. , Lis′kiewicz, G. , Horodko, L. , and Magiera, R. , 2016, “ Experimental Investigation of the Influence of the Inlet Duct Configuration on the Unstable Operation of a Single-Stage Centrifugal Blower,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A, 230(3), pp. 260–271. [CrossRef]
Courtiade, N. , and Ottavy, X. , 2013, “ Experimental Study of Surge Precursors in a High-Speed Multistage Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(6), p. 061018. [CrossRef]
Marelli, S. , Carraro, C. , Marmorato, G. , Zamboni, G. , and Capobianco, M. , 2014, “ Experimental Analysis on the Performance of a Turbocharger Compressor in the Unstable Operating Region and Close to the Surge Limit,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 53(3), pp. 154–160. [CrossRef]
Zheng, X. , and Liu, A. , 2015, “ Phenomenon and Mechanism of Two-Regime-Surge in a Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(8), p. 081007. [CrossRef]
Huang, P. X. , and Yin, J. , 2014, “ Transient Surge Dynamics: A Shock Tube Theory and Experimental Comparison,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-26270.
Mazzawy, R. S. , 1980, “ Surge Induced Structural Loads in Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 102(1), pp. 162–168. [CrossRef]
Cargill, A. M. , and Freeman, C. , 1991, “ High-Speed Compressor Surge With Application to Active Control,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113(2), pp. 303–311. [CrossRef]
Day, I. , 1994, “ Axial Compressor Performance During Surge,” J. Propul. Power, 10(3), pp. 329–336. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Three-Dimensional sketch of the piping system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional sketch of the piping system: (a) layout #1 and (b) layout #2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Diagram of the control and acquisition system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Steady-state performance map: pressure ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Steady-state performance maps: isentropic efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Steady-state performance maps: static pressure ratio at stage five (bleed valve position)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Dynamic test at ν = 10,000 rpm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Dynamic test at ν = 10,000 rpm. Typical surge oscillations encountered on p2, m1, m3, and Pmec,norm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Dynamic test at ν = 10,000 rpm. Characteristic curve toward surge and recover from surge.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Dynamic test at ν = 15,000 rpm. Surge pulsations of p2, m1, m3, and Pmec,norm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Dynamic test at ν = 10,000 rpm. Fast-response transducers signals at compressor a few instants before surge.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Dynamic test at ν = 10,000 rpm. Stall analysis at compressor inlet. Frequency domain analysis.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Dynamic test at ν = 10,000 rpm. Stall analysis at compressor inlet. Complete development of rotating perturbations.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In