Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Flame Holding in the Premixing Zone of a Gas Turbine Model Combustor After Forced Ignition of H2–Natural Gas–Air Mixtures

[+] Author and Article Information
Matthias Utschick

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany
e-mail: utschick@td.mw.tum.de

Thomas Sattelmayer

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 1, 2016; final manuscript received August 2, 2016; published online October 26, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(4), 041504 (Oct 26, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1300; doi: 10.1115/1.4034647 History: Received July 01, 2016; Revised August 02, 2016

Flashback (FB) and self-ignition in the premixing zone of typical gas turbine swirl combustors in lean premixed operation are immanent risks and can lead to damage and failure of components. Thus, steady combustion in the premixing zone must be avoided under all circumstances. This study experimentally investigates the flame holding propensity of fuel injectors in the swirler of a gas turbine model combustor with premixing of H2–natural gas (NG)–air mixtures under atmospheric pressure and proposes a model to predict the limit for safe operation. The A2EV swirler concept exhibits a hollow, thick walled conical structure with four tangential slots. Four fuel injector geometries were tested. One of them injects the fuel orthogonal to the air flow in the slots (jet-in-crossflow injector, JICI). Three injector types introduce the fuel almost isokinetic to the air flow at the trailing edge of the swirler slots (trailing edge injector, TEI). A cylindrical duct and a window in the swirler made of quartz glass allow the application of optical diagnostics (OH* chemiluminescence and planar laser induced fluorescence of the OH radical (OH-PLIF)) inside the swirler. The fuel–air mixture was ignited with a focused single laser pulse during steady operation. The position of ignition was located inside the swirler in proximity to a fuel injection hole. If the flame was washed out of the premixing zone not later than 4 s after the ignition, the operation point was defined as safe. Operation points were investigated at three air mass flows, three air ratios, two air preheat temperatures (573 K and 673 K), and 40 to 100 percent per volume hydrogen in the fuel composed of hydrogen and natural gas. The determined safety limit for atmospheric pressure yields a similarity rule based on a critical Damköhler number. Application of the proposed rule at conditions typical for gas turbines leads to these safety limits for the A2EV burner: With the TEIs, the swirler can safely operate with up to 80 percent per volume hydrogen content in the fuel at an air ratio of two. With the JIC injector, safe operation at stoichiometric conditions and 95 percent per volume hydrogen is possible.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


EERE Information Center, 2010, “ Fuel Cell Technologies Program,” U.S. Department of Energy, Technical Report No. 1-877-337-3463.
Smith, S. H. , and Mungal, M. G. , 1998, “ Mixing, Structure and Scaling of the Jet in Crossflow,” J. Fluid Mech., 357, pp. 83–122. [CrossRef]
Han, D. , and Mungal, M. , 2003, “ Simultaneous Measurements of Velocity and CH Distribution. Part I: Jet Flames in Co-Flow,” Combust. Flame, 132(3), pp. 565–590. [CrossRef]
Han, D. , and Mungal, M. , 2003, “ Simultaneous Measurements of Velocity and CH Distribution. Part II: Deflected Jet Flames,” Combust. Flame, 133, pp. 1–17. [CrossRef]
Tieszen, S. R. , Stamps, D. W. , and O'Hern, T. J. , 1996, “ A Heuristic Model of Turbulent Mixing Applied to Blowout of Turbulent Jet Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame, 106(4), pp. 442–466. [CrossRef]
Kalghatgi, G. T. , 1984, “ Lift-Off Heights and Visible Lengths of Vertical Turbulent Jet Diffusion Flames in Still Air,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 41(1–2), pp. 17–29.
Dahm, W. J. A. , and Mayman, A. G. , 1990, “ Blowout Limits of Turbulent Jet Diffusion Flames for Arbitrary Source Conditions,” AIAA J., 28(7), pp. 1157–1162. [CrossRef]
Bradley, D. , Casal, J. , Gaskell, P. H. , and Palacios, A. , 2013, “ Jet Flames, Flares and Pool Fires: Predictions of Flame Lift-Off, Plume and Flame Height Under Choked and Unchoked Conditions,” Seventh International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards, pp. 200–209.
Sangl, J. , 2011, “ Erhöhung der Brennstoffflexibilität von Vormischbrennern durch Beeinflussung der Wirbeldynamik,” Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität München, Garching, Germany.
Mayer, C. , 2012, “ Konzept zur vorgemischten Verbrennung wasserstoffhaltiger Brennstoffe in Gasturbinen,” Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität München, Garching, Germany.
Fritz, Y. , Kröner, M. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2004, “ Flashback in a Swirl Burner With Cylindrical Premixing Zone,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 126(2), pp. 276–283. [CrossRef]
Kröner, M. , Fritz, Y. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2003, “ Flashback Limits for Combustion Induced Vortex Breakdown in a Swirl Burner,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 125(3), pp. 693–700. [CrossRef]
Goodwin, D. G. , Moffat, H. K. , and R. L. Speth , 2014, “ Cantera: An Object-Oriented Software Toolkit for Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics, and Transport Processes,” Version 2.2.1, accessed Mar. 17, 2014, https://sourceforge.net/projects/cantera/files/cantera/
Otsu, N. , 1979, “ A Threshold Selection Method From Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., 9(1), pp. 62–66. [CrossRef]
Reichel, T. G. , Göckeler, K. , and Paschereit, C. O. , 2015, “ Investigation of Lean Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Hydrogen Burner With Axial Air Injection Using OH-PLIF Imaging,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42491.
Peters, N. , 2006, Turbulent Combustion, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Peters, N. , 1994, “ Turbulente Brenngeschwindigkeit,” RWTH Aachen, Technical Report No. Pe 241/9-2.
Kröner, M. , 2003, “ Einfluss lokaler Löschvorgänge auf den Flammenrückschlag durch verbrennungsinduziertes Wirbelaufplatzen,” Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität München, Garching, Germany.
Lawn, C. , 2009, “ Lifted Flames on Fuel Jets in Co-Flowing Air,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 35(1), pp. 1–30. [CrossRef]
Gomes, J. N. , Kribs, J. D. , and Lyons, K. M. , 2012, “ Stability and Blowout Behavior of Jet Flames in Oblique Air Flows,” J. Combust., 2012, p. 218916.
Hasselbrink, E. F. , and Mungal, M. G. , 2001, “ Transverse Jets and Jet Flames. Part 2. Velocity and OH Field Imaging,” J. Fluid Mech., 443, pp. 27–68.
Kalghatgi, G. T. , 1981, “ Blow-Out Stability of Gaseous Jet Diffusion Flames Part II: Effect of Cross Wind,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 26(5–6), pp. 241–244. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Inclined JIC after Ref. [4]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A2EV combustor concept

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

A2EV swirler and gas injectors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Reference system in the swirler

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Flow conditions and imaging in the swirler

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Laser ignition in the swirler

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Mean jet flame position in LS1 and LS2 after a FB; 500 instantaneous OH-PLIF recordings have been used for the mean image

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

OH* flame radiation recordings after forced ignition in ZP1 with Inj. A at m˙a= 100 g/s, λ = 3, and XH2,f=0.80 (safe operation point)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

OH-PLIF recordings after forced ignition in ZP1 with Inj. A at m˙a= 100 g/s, λ = 3, and XH2,f=0.80 (safe operation point)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Operating conditions determining the safety limit

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Correlating the operational safety with a critical Damköhler number; below the black line is the safe range. Left: current experiment and right: computed values for r and Da at varied temperature or pressure with Inj. A and D corresponding to λ=2.5 and m˙a,0=80 g/s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Uncertainty of the Daˇ model predictions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Dˇa model applied to literature data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Safety maps for Inj. A–D (Ta=400 °C and Tf=283 °C); isolines and color represent the air speed in the swirler slots

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Safety maps for Inj. A and D computed at p = 20 bar (Ta=400 °C and Tf=283 °C)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In