Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Spatiotemporal Distribution of Soot Temperature for Flames Using Optical Pyrometry Under Unsteady Inlet Airflow Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Arda Cakmakci, Michael Knadler

Combustion Research Laboratory,
School of Aerospace Systems,
University of Cincinnati,
Cincinnati, OH 45220

Jong Guen Lee

Combustion Research Laboratory,
School of Aerospace Systems,
University of Cincinnati,
Cincinnati, OH 45220
e-mail: Jongguen.lee@uc.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 12, 2016; final manuscript received August 24, 2016; published online December 7, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(5), 051502 (Dec 07, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1406; doi: 10.1115/1.4034969 History: Received August 12, 2016; Revised August 24, 2016

Two pyrometric tools for measuring soot temperature response in fuel-rich flames under unsteady inlet airflow conditions are developed. High-speed pyrometry using a high-speed color camera is used in producing soot temperature distributions, with its results compared with those of global soot temperature response measured using a multiwavelength pyrometer. For the former, the pixel red, green, and blue (RGB) values pertaining to respective bandwidths of red, green, and blue filters are used to calculate temperature and for the latter, the emission from whole flame at 660 nm, 730 nm, and 800 nm is used to measure temperature. The combustor, running on jet-A fuel, achieves unsteady inlet airflow using a siren running at frequencies of 150 and 250 Hz and with modulation levels (root mean square (RMS)) 20–50% of mean velocity. Spatiotemporal response of flame temperature measured by the high-speed camera is presented by phase-averaged with average subtracted images and by fast Fourier transform (FFT) at the modulation frequencies of inlet velocity. Simultaneous measurement of combustor inlet air velocity and flame soot temperature using the multiwavelength pyrometer is used in calculating the flame transfer function (FTF) of flame temperature response to unsteady inlet airflow. The results of global temperature and temperature fluctuation from the three-color pyrometer show qualitative agreement with the local temperature response measured by the high-speed camera. Over the range of operating conditions employed, the overall flame temperature fluctuation increases linearly with respect to the inlet velocity fluctuation. The two-dimensional map of flame temperature under unsteady combustion determined using a high-speed digital color camera shows that the local temperature fluctuation during unsteady combustion occurs over relatively small region of flame and its level is greater (∼10% to 20%) than that of overall temperature fluctuation (∼1%).

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Lieuwen, T. , Torres, H. , Johnson, C. , and Zinn, B. T. , 2001, “ A Mechanism of Combustion Instability in Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Combustors,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123(1), pp. 182–189. [CrossRef]
Lee, J. G. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2003, “ Experimental Diagnostics for the Study of Instabilities in Lean Premixed Combustors,” J. Propul. Power, 19(5), pp. 735–750. [CrossRef]
Fleifil, M. , Annaswamy, A. M. , Ghoneim, Z. A. , and Ghoniem, A. F. , 1996, “ Response of a Laminar Premixed Flame to Flow Oscillations: A Kinematic Model and Thermoacoustic Instability Results,” Combust. Flame, 106(4), pp. 487–510. [CrossRef]
Schuller, T. , Durox, D. , and Candel, S. , 2002, “ Dynamics of and Noise Radiated by a Perturbed Impinging Premixed Jet Flame,” Combust. Flame, 128(1), pp. 88–110. [CrossRef]
You, D. , Huang, Y. , and Yang, V. , 2005, “ A Generalized Model of Acoustic Response of Turbulent Premixed Flame and Its Application to Gas–Turbine Combustion Instability Analysis,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 177(1), pp. 1109–1150. [CrossRef]
Preetham, S. H. , and Lieuwen, T. C. , 2000, “ Response of Turbulent Premixed Flames to Harmonic Acoustic Forcing,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 31(1), pp. 1427–1434. [CrossRef]
Balachandran, R. , Ayoola, B. O. , Kaminski, C. F. , Dowling, A. P. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2005, “ Experimental Investigation of the Nonlinear Response of Turbulent Premixed Flames to Imposed Inlet Velocity Oscillations,” Combust. Flame, 143(1), pp. 37–55. [CrossRef]
Kim, D. , Lee, J. G. , Quay, B. D. , Santavicca, D. A. , Kim, K. , and Srinivasan, S. , 2010, “ Effect of Flame Structure on the Flame Transfer Function in a Premixed Gas Turbine Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(2), p. 021502. [CrossRef]
Kim, K. T. , Lee, J. G. , Lee, H. J. , Quay, B. D. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2010, “ Characterization of Forced Flame Response of Swirl-Stabilized Turbulent Lean-Premixed Flames in a Gas Turbine Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(4), p. 041502. [CrossRef]
Kim, K. T. , Lee, J. G. , Quay, B. D. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2011, “ Experimental Investigation of the Nonlinear Response of Swirl Stabilized Flames to Equivalence Ratio Oscillations,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(2), p. 021502. [CrossRef]
Knadler, M. , Cakmakci, A. , and Lee, J. G. , 2015, “ Response of Soot Temperature to Unsteady Inlet Airflow Under Modulated Condition and Naturally Occurring Combustion Dynamics,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(4), p. 041507. [CrossRef]
Sivathanu, Y. R. , and Faeth, G. M. , 1990, “ Temperature/Soot Volume Fraction Correlations in the Fuel-Rich Region of Buoyant Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame, 81(2), pp. 150–165. [CrossRef]
Ng, D. , and Fralick, G. , 2001, “ Use of a Multiwavelength Pyrometer in Several Elevated Temperature Aerospace Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 72(2), pp. 1522–2530. [CrossRef]
Khatami, R. , and Levendis, Y. , 2011, “ On the Deduction of Single Coal Particle Combustion Temperature From Three-Color Optical Pyrometry,” Combust. Flame, 158(9), pp. 1822–1836. [CrossRef]
Panagiotou, T. , Levendis, Y. , and Delichatsios, M. , 1996, “ Measurements of Particle Flame Temperatures Using Three-Color Optical Pyrometry,” Combust. Flame, 104(3), pp. 272–287. [CrossRef]
Cassady, L. D. , and Choueiri, E. Y. , 2003, “ High Accuracy Multi-Color Pyrometry for High Temperature Surfaces,” Electric Propulsion and Plasma Dynamics Laboratory (EPPDyL), Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
Wendler, M. , Guevara, G. , Weikl, M. C. , Sommer, R. , Beyrau, F. , Seeger, T. , and Leipertz, A. , 2007, “ Comparison of Temperature Measurements in Non-Premixed Flames Using Emission Spectroscopy and CARS,” European Combustion Meeting, Crete, Greece, Apr. 11–13, Paper No. 5–21.
Wainner, R. T. , Seitzman, J. M. , and Martin, S. R. , 1999, “ Soot Measurements in a Simulated Engine Exhaust Using Laser-Induced Incandescence,” AIAA J., 37(6), pp. 738–743. [CrossRef]
Wagner, S. , Klein, M. , Kathrotia, T. , Riedel, U. , Kissel, T. , Dreizler, A. , and Ebert, V. , 2012, “ In Situ TDLAS Measurement of Absolute Acetylene Concentration Profiles in a Non-Premixed Laminar Counter-Flow Flame,” Appl. Phys. B, 107(3), pp. 585–589. [CrossRef]
Guo, H. , Castillo, J. A. , and Sunderland, P. B. , 2013, “ Digital Camera Measurements of Soot Temperature and Soot Volume Fraction in Axisymmetric Flames,” Appl. Opt., 52(33), pp. 8040–8047. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Santoro, R. J. , Semerjian, H. G. , and Dobbins, R. A. , 1983, “ Soot Particle Measurements in Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame, 51, pp. 203–218. [CrossRef]
Santoro, R. J. , Yeh, T. T. , Horvath, J. J. , and Semerjian, H. G. , 1987, “ The Transport and Growth of Soot Particles in Laminar Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 53(2), pp. 89–115. [CrossRef]
Draper, T. S. , Zeltner, D. , Tree, D. R. , Xue, Y. , and Tsiava, R. , 2012, “ Two-Dimensional Flame Temperature and Emissivity Measurements of Pulverized Oxy-Coal Flames,” Appl. Energy, 95, pp. 38–44. [CrossRef]
Kuhn, P. B. , Ma, B. , Connelly, B. C. , Smooke, M. D. , and Long, M. B. , 2010, “ Soot and Thin-Filament Pyrometry Using a Color Digital Camera,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33(1), pp. 743–750. [CrossRef]
Densmore, J. M. , Biss, M. M. , McNesby, K. L. , and Homan, B. E. , 2011, “ High-Speed Digital Color Imaging Pyrometry,” Appl. Opt., 50(17), pp. 2659–2665. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Simonini, S. , Elston, S. J. , and Stone, C. R. , 2001, “ Soot Temperature and Concentration Measurements From Color Charge Coupled Device Camera Images Using a Three-Colour Method,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C, 215(9), pp. 1041–1052.
Sun, D. , Lu, G. , Zhou, H. , and Yan, Y. , 2012, “ Measurement of Soot Temperature, Emissivity, and Concentration of a Heavy-Oil Flame Through Pyrometric Imaging,” IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), Graz, Austria, May 13–16, pp. 1865–1869.
Waser, M. P. , and Crocker, M. J. , 1985, “ Introduction to the Two-Microphone Cross-Spectral Method of Determining Sound,” Noise Control Eng. J., 22(3), pp. 76–85. [CrossRef]
Bunce, K. , Lee, J. G. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2006, “ Characterization of Liquid Jets-In Crossflow Under High Temperature, High Velocity Non-Oscillating and Oscillating Flow Conditions,” AIAA Paper No. 2006-1225.
Candel, S. M. , 1992, “ Combustion Instabilities Coupled by Pressure Waves and Their Active Control,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 24(1), pp. 1277–1296. [CrossRef]
Dasch, J. C. , 1992, “ One-Dimensional Tomography: A Comparison of Abel, Onion-Peeling, and Filtered Back Projection Methods,” Appl. Opt., 31(8), pp. 1146–1152. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional view of combustion rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Global three-color pyrometer assembly

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Measured signal ratio versus monochromatic spectral intensity ratio of a blackbody: (a) I800/730, (b) I800/660, and (c)I730/660

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Temperature (K) versus channel ratio (G/R)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Normalized temperature fluctuations versus inlet velocity fluctuations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Evolution of phase-averaged flame temperature fluctuation for 150 Hz at 25% modulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Evolution of phase-averaged flame temperature fluctuation for 250 Hz at 23% modulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Evolution of phase-averaged flame temperature fluctuation for 150 Hz at 52% modulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Axial COM location versus phase (deg)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Video FFT result-evolution of flame temperature fluctuation for inlet flow modulation at 150 Hz with 25% of mean velocity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Video FFT result-evolution of flame temperature fluctuation for inlet flow modulation at 250 Hz with 23% of mean velocity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Video FFT result-evolution of flame temperature fluctuation for inlet flow modulation at 150 Hz with 52% of mean velocity



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In