Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Prediction of Flame Burning Velocity at Early Flame Development Time With High Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Spark Advance

[+] Author and Article Information
H. Lian

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
1231 Beal Avenue,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: hlian@umich.edu

J. B. Martz, B. P. Maldonado, A. G. Stefanopoulou

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
1231 Beal Avenue,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

K. Zaseck

Toyota Motor Engineering and
Manufacturing North America, Inc.,
1555 Woodridge Avenue,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: kevin.zaseck@toyota.com

J. Wilkie, O. Nitulescu, M. Ehara

Toyota Motor Engineering and
Manufacturing North America, Inc.,
1555 Woodridge Avenue,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 11, 2016; final manuscript received January 16, 2017; published online March 21, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(8), 082801 (Mar 21, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1530; doi: 10.1115/1.4035849 History: Received November 11, 2016; Revised January 16, 2017

Diluting spark-ignited (SI) stoichiometric combustion engines with excess residual gas improves thermal efficiency and allows the spark to be advanced toward maximum brake torque (MBT) timing. However, flame propagation rates decrease and misfires can occur at high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions and advanced spark, limiting the maximum level of charge dilution and its benefits. The misfire limits are often determined for a specific engine from extensive experiments covering a large range of speed, torque, and actuator settings. To extend the benefits of dilute combustion while at the misfire limit, it is essential to define a parameterizable, physics-based model capable of predicting the misfire limits, with cycle to cycle varied flame burning velocity as operating conditions change based on the driver demand. A cycle-averaged model is the first step in this process. The current work describes a model of cycle-averaged laminar flame burning velocity within the early flame development period of 0–3% mass fraction burned. A flame curvature correction method is used to account for both the effect of flame stretch and ignition characteristics, in a variable volume engine system. Comparison of the predicted and the measured flame velocity was performed using a spark plug with fiber optical access. The comparison at a small set of spark and EGR settings at fixed load and speed, shows an agreement within 30% of uncertainty, while 20% uncertainty equals ± one standard deviation over 2000 cycles.

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Fig. 2

Numerical integration range of τ̃−2e−Ũτ̃dτ̃

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Fig. 3

Relationship between the normalized flame radius R̃=Rf/δ0 and flame burning velocity Ũ=SL,b/SL,b0 for varying normalized ignition power P̃s based on Eq. (3)

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Fig. 4

Dimensionalization process

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Fig. 5

The laminar flame burning velocity SL,bc(θ) corrected for curvature stretching and ignition deposition from 1 to 10 deg after ignition timing θs

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Fig. 6

Crank angle-resolved laminar flame burning velocity SL,u0, SL,b0 with respect to the unburned/burned mixture, and the corrected laminar flame burning velocity SL,bc (45 deg bTDC spark timing and 25% EGR rate)

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Fig. 8

An example of the superimposed seven photomultiplier signals (45 deg bTDC spark timing and 25% EGR rate)

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Fig. 9

Normalized ignition power P̃s=Ps/(4πλδ0(Tb−Tu))

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Fig. 7

Illustration of the VisioFlame fiber optic spark plugs

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Fig. 10

Measured flame burning velocity St,b (in circles) and modeled flame burning velocity 〈SL,bc〉 (in crosses)

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Fig. 11

Accuracy of the modeled flame burning velocity



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