Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Formulation of Sasol Isomerized Paraffinic Kerosene Surrogate Fuel for Diesel Engine Application Using an Ignition Quality Tester

[+] Author and Article Information
Ziliang Zheng

Mechanical Engineering,
Wayne State University,
5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Suite 2100
Detroit, MI 48202
e-mail: zhengziliang@gmail.com

Tamer Badawy

Mechanical Engineering,
Wayne State University,
5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Suite 2100
Detroit, MI 48202
e-mail: eng.tam@gmail.com

Naeim Henein

Mechanical Engineering,
Wayne State University,
5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Suite 2100
Detroit, MI 48202
e-mail: henein@eng.wayne.edu

Peter Schihl

6305 E 11 Mile Road,
Warren, MI 48092
e-mail: peter.schihl@yahoo.com

Eric Sattler

6305 E 11 Mile Road,
Warren, MI 48092
e-mail: eric.r.sattler.civ@mail.mil

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 20, 2016; final manuscript received January 30, 2017; published online April 11, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(9), 092801 (Apr 11, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1542; doi: 10.1115/1.4035910 History: Received November 20, 2016; Revised January 30, 2017

Sasol isomerized paraffinic kerosene (IPK) is a coal-derived synthetic fuel under consideration as a blending stock with jet propellant 8 (JP-8) for use in military equipment. However, Sasol IPK is a low ignition quality fuel with derived cetane number (DCN) of 31. The proper use of such alternative fuels in internal combustion engines (ICEs) requires the modification in control strategies to operate engines efficiently. With computational cycle simulation coupled with surrogate fuel mechanism, the engine development process is proved to be very effective. Therefore, a methodology to formulate Sasol IPK surrogate fuels for diesel engine application using ignition quality tester (IQT) is developed. An in-house developed matlab code is used to formulate the appropriate mixture blends, also known as surrogate fuel. And aspen hysys is used to emulate the distillation curve of the surrogate fuels. The properties of the surrogate fuels are compared to those of the target Sasol IPK fuel. The DCNs of surrogate fuels are measured in the IQT and compared with the target Sasol IPK fuel at the standard condition. Furthermore, the ignition delay, combustion gas pressure, and rate of heat release (RHR) of Sasol IPK and its formulated surrogate fuels are analyzed and compared at five different charge temperatures. In addition, the apparent activation energies derived from chemical ignition delay of the surrogate fuel and Sasol IPK are determined and compared.

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Fig. 1

A sample of traces for the needle-lift and chamber pressure depicting the definition of IQT ignition delay time

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the ignition quality tester setup at Wayne State University

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Fig. 3

Distillation curve of Sasol IPK measured at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). (The distillation curve of diesel fuel is adapted from the previous study [28].)

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Fig. 4

Comparison of distillation curves between Sasol IPK and surrogate fuels

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Fig. 5

Comparison of needle-lift, RHR, and pressure traces between Sasol IPK and the surrogate fuels

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Fig. 6

Comparison of zoomed RHR traces between Sasol IPK and the surrogate fuels

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Fig. 7

Comparison of normalized cumulative heat release between Sasol IPK and the surrogate fuels

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Fig. 8

Comparison of pressure, needle-lift, and RHR traces between Sasol IPK and SF2 at different temperatures

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Fig. 9

Needle-lift, pressure, RHR, and temperature traces for Sasol IPK fuel injection into air and nitrogen

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Fig. 10

Arrhenius plot based on chemical ignition delay versus mean temperature for Sasol IPK and SF2



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