Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Particulate Matter Emission Suppression Strategies in a Turbocharged Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhang Ming

Powertrain Systems,
Magneti Marelli (China) Co., Ltd.,
685 Jujin Road,
Pudong, Shanghai 201208, China
e-mail: jimmy.zhang@magnetimarelli.com

Zhong Jun

Powertrain Systems,
Magneti Marelli (China) Co., Ltd.,
685 Jujin Road,
Pudong, Shanghai 201208, China
e-mail: jim.zhong@magnetimarelli.com

Capelli Stefano

Powertrain Systems,
Magneti Marelli (China) Co., Ltd.,
685 Jujin Road,
Pudong, Shanghai 201208, China
e-mail: stefano.capelli@magnetimarelli.com

Lubrano Luigi

Powertrain Systems,
Magneti Marelli (China) Co., Ltd.,
685 Jujin Road,
Pudong, Shanghai 201208, China
e-mail: luigi.lubrano@magnetimarelli.com

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received September 22, 2016; final manuscript received March 8, 2017; published online April 25, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Nadir Yilmaz.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(10), 102801 (Apr 25, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1461; doi: 10.1115/1.4036301 History: Received September 22, 2016; Revised March 08, 2017

The development process of a down-sized turbocharged gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine/vehicle was partially introduced with the focus on particulate matter (PM)/particle number (PN) emission reduction. To achieve this goal, the injection system was upgraded to obtain higher injection pressure. Two types of prototype injectors were designed and compared under critical test conditions. Combined numerical and experimental analysis was made to select the right injector in terms of particle emission. With the selected injector, the effect of injection parameters calibration (injection pressure, start of injection (SOI) timing, number of injection pulses, etc.) on PM/PN emission was illustrated. The number of fuel injection pulses, SOI timing, and injection pressure were found playing the leading role in terms of the particle emission suppression. With single-injection strategy, the injection pressure and SOI timing were found to be a dominant factor to reduce particle emission in warm-up condition and cold condition, respectively; a fine combination of injection timing and injection pressure is generally able to decrease up to 50% of PM emission in a wide range of the engine map. While with multiple injection, up to an order of magnitude PM emission reduction can be achieved. Several New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) emission cycles were arranged on a demo vehicle to evaluate the effect of the injection system upgrade and adjusted calibration. This work will provide a guide for the emission control of GDI engines/vehicles fulfilling future emission legislation.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Zhao, F. , Lai, M.-C. , and Harrington, D. L. , 1999, “ Automotive Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 25(5), pp. 437–562. [CrossRef]
Kirwan, J. E. , Shost, M. , Roth, G. , and Zizelman, J. , 2010, “ 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Low CO2 and NOx Emissions,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 3(1), pp. 355–371. [CrossRef]
Ito, Y. , Shimoda, T. , Aoki, T. , Yuuki, K. , Sakamoto, H. , Kato, K. , Thier, D. , Kattouah, P. , Ohara, E. , and Vogt, C. , 2015, “ Next Generation of Ceramic Wall Flow Gasoline Particulate Filter With Integrated Three Way Catalyst,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2015-01-1073.
Kinnunen, T. , Matilainen, P. , Scheder, D. , Czika, W. , Waters, D. , and Russ, G. , 2012, “ Particle Oxidation Catalyst (POC®)—From Diesel to GDI—Studies on Particulate Number and Mass Efficiency,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-0845.
Saito, C. , Nakatani, T. , Miyairi, Y. , Yuuki, K. , Makino, M. , Kurachi, H. , Heuss, W. , Kuki, T. , Furuta, Y. , Kattouah, P. , and Vogt, C.-D. , 2011, “ New Particulate Filter Concept to Reduce Particle Number Emissions,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-01-0814.
Chan, T. W. , Meloche, E. , Kubsh, J. , Brezny, R. , Rosenblatt, D. , and Rideout, G. , 2013, “ Impact of Ambient Temperature on Gaseous and Particle Emissions From a Direct Injection Gasoline Vehicle and Its Implications on Particle Filtration,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 6(2), pp. 350–371. [CrossRef]
Badshah, H. , and Khalek, I. A. , 2015, “ Solid Particle Emissions From Vehicle Exhaust During Engine Start-Up,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 8(4), pp. 1492–1502. [CrossRef]
Fu, H. , Wang, Y. , Li, X. , and Shuai, S.-J. , 2014, “ Impacts of Cold-Start and Gasoline RON on Particulate Emission From Vehicles Powered by GDI and PFI Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2014-01-2836.
Aori, G. , Hung, D. , Zhang, M. , Zhang, G. , and Li, T. , 2016, “ Effect of Nozzle Configuration on Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of Multi-Hole Fuel Injectors Under Superheated Conditions,” Atomization Sprays, 26(5), pp. 439–462. [CrossRef]
Lohfink, C. , Baecker, H. , and Tichy, M. , 2008, “ Experimental Investigation on Catalyst-Heating Strategies and Potential of GDI Combustion Systems,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-2517.
Whitaker, P. , Kapus, P. , Ogris, M. , and Hollerer, P. , 2011, “ Measures to Reduce Particulate Emissions From Gasoline DI Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 4(1), pp. 1498–1512. [CrossRef]
Su, J. , Xu, M. , Yin, P. , Gao, Y. , and Hung, D. , 2014, “ Particle Number Emissions Reduction Using Multiple Injection Strategies in a Boosted Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Gasoline Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 8(1), pp. 20–29. [CrossRef]
Kim, Y. , Kim, Y. , Jun, S. , Lee, K. H. , Rew, S. , Lee, D. , and Park, S. , 2013, “ Strategies for Particle Emissions Reduction From GDI Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-1556.
Zhang, M. , Drake, M. , and Peterson, K. , 2013, “ Simultaneous High-Speed Imaging of Fuel Spray, Combustion Luminosity, and Soot Luminosity in a Spray-Guided Direct Injection Engine With Different Multi-Hole Fuel Injectors,” ASME Paper No. ICEF2013-19066.
Pontoppidan, M. , Pancotti, C. , Francia, P. , Montanari, G. , and Damasceno, F. , 2002, “ DGI—Direct Gasoline Injection Status of Development for Spark-Ignited Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2002-01-3519.
Parotto, M. , Sgatti, S. , and Sensi, F. , 2013, “ Advanced GDI Injector Control With Extended Dynamic Range,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-0258.
Cavina, N. , Businaro, A. , Moro, D. , Di Gioia, R. , Bonandrini, G. , Papaleo, D. , and Picerno, M. , 2015, “ Assessment of the Influence of GDI Injection System Parameters on Soot Emission and Combustion Stability Through a Numerical and Experimental Approach,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 8(5), pp. 2078–2088.
Bonandrini, G. , Di Gioia, R. , Papaleo, D. , and Venturoli, L. , 2012, “ Numerical Study on Multiple Injection Strategies in DISI Engines for Particulate Emission Control,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-0400.
Lucchini, T. , 2014, “ Development and Application of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Methodology to Predict Fuel–Air Mixing and Sources of Soot Formation in Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines,” Int. J. Engine Res., 15(5), pp. 581–596. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the GDI engine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Specification of the GDI injectors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Characteristic PN emission of the NEDC cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

PM emission map of the two prototype injectors under cold conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Equivalence ratio distribution with the prototype injectors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

PM emission map of the two prototype injectors under warm conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

PM map from different Pinj/SOI calibration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Schematic of Magneti Marelli's injection strategy

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

PM distribution using single injection (a), double injection (b) and (c) and triple injection (d)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The effect of multiple injection on combustion stability and PM emission

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Emission test result with the demo vehicle



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In