Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Inverse Analysis of In-Cylinder Gas-Wall Boundary Conditions: Investigation of a Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coating for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

[+] Author and Article Information
Ryan O'Donnell

Department of Automotive Engineering,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607
e-mail: rodonne@g.clemson.edu

Tommy Powell

Department of Automotive Engineering,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607
e-mail: trpowel@g.clemson.edu

Mark Hoffman

Department of Automotive Engineering,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607
e-mail: mhoffm4@clemson.edu

Eric Jordan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Connecticut,
Storrs, CT 06269
e-mail: jordan@engr.uconn.edu

Zoran Filipi

Department of Automotive Engineering,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607
e-mail: zfilipi@clemson.edu

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 21, 2017; final manuscript received March 13, 2017; published online May 9, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(10), 102808 (May 09, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1075; doi: 10.1115/1.4036387 History: Received February 21, 2017; Revised March 13, 2017

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to in-cylinder surfaces of a low temperature combustion (LTC) engine provide an opportunity for enhanced efficiency via two mechanisms: (i) positive impact on thermodynamic cycle efficiency due to combustion/expansion heat loss reduction, and (ii) enhanced combustion efficiency. Heat released during combustion increases the temperature gradient within the TBC layer, elevating surface temperature over combustion-relevant crank angles. Thorough characterization of this dynamic temperature “swing” at the TBC–gas interface is required to ensure accurate determination of heat transfer and the associated impact(s) on engine performance, emissions, and efficiencies. This paper employs an inverse heat conduction solver based on the sequential function specification method (SFSM) to estimate TBC surface temperature and heat flux profiles using sub-TBC temperature measurements. The authors first assess the robustness of the solution methodology ex situ, utilizing an inert, quiescent environment and a known heat flux boundary condition. The inverse solver is extended in situ to evaluate surface thermal phenomena within a TBC-treated single-cylinder, gasoline-fueled, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The resultant analysis provides crank angle resolved TBC surface temperature and heat flux profiles over a host of operational conditions. Insight derived from this work may be correlated with TBC thermophysical properties to determine the impact(s) of material selection on engine performance, emissions, heat transfer, and efficiencies. These efforts will guide next-generation TBC design.

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Fig. 1

Conceptual surface temperature profiles of metal, “traditional TBC,” and “swing TBC” engine configurations. The dynamic surface temperature enabled by the swing TBC layer tracks bulk gas temperature—reducing heat loss during late compression and expansion while avoided charge heating during intake (adapted from Ref. [4]).

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Fig. 2

One-dimensional model of the composite TBC (ρA,CA,kA)/temperature probe (ρB,CB,kB) system. A time variant heat flux is applied at the surface boundary of the TBC. Resultant subsurface temperature profiles are recorded at the frontside (T1 at x1) and backside (T2 at x2) thermocouple junction locations.

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Fig. 3

Operational schematic of the ex situ radiation chamber. An electrically powered resistive heating element generates a constant radiative heat flux of ∼0.5 MW/m2. A rotating “chopping wheel” periodically interrupts the “line of sight” between heat source and incident temperature probes, providing a dynamic heating event similar in magnitude and duration to HCCI combustion, while avoiding the turbulent reactivity of the in-cylinder environment.

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Fig. 4

(a) Single cylinder test engine and (b) mounting location of in-cylinder temperature probes

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Fig. 5

Comparison between (a) “fuel match” and (b) “fuel match phase match” operational conditions for 1600 rpm, 10.5 mg/cycle fuel. Over 93 °C TINTAKE is required to advance combustion within the metal engine to 7 CAD aTDC, while 9% EGR is required to retard APS combustion to the same CAD for the same intake temperature.

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Fig. 6

Comparison of direct (Fourier) and inverse (SFSM) solution methods. (a) Successful calibration of the finite difference model within the inverse solver. The SFSM also provides estimates of the TBC surface temperature (b), enabling comparison with measurements from the uncoated metal probe.

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Fig. 7

Surface heat flux (a) and temperature (b) profiles from the pulley-side head probe within the firing HCCI test engine. Operational parameters: 1200 rpm—11.7 mg fuel, 104 °C TINTAKE, 6% EGR (TBC engine only); 1600 rpm—10.5 mg fuel, 93 °C TINTAKE, 9% EGR (TBC engine only); 2000 rpm—10.3 mg fuel, 108 °C TINTAKE, 7% EGR (TBC engine only); and 2400 rpm—10.3 mg fuel, 103 °C TINTAKE, 0% EGR.

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Fig. 8

Summary of emissions and thermal efficiency (gross, indicated) for 1600 rpm FMPM operation, metal versus APS engine configurations. CO and hydrocarbon emission indices are reported in g/kgFuel, while thermal efficiency is reported as a percentage. (Note: Inclusion of the instrument and measurement uncertainties discussed in Appendix B allow the reported thermal efficiencies to range such that: 39.9 ≤ ηTh,Metal ≤ 40.55 and 41.1 ≤ ηTh,APS ≤ 41.77. Furthermore, reported emissions metrics are accurate within 0.2% and 0.05% of measured CO and HC, respectively. Thus, the reported trends remain statistically significant.)

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Fig. 9

Global heat loss (both instantaneous (a) and cumulative (b)) as calculated over the 90 CADs immediately following TDC firing. The APS-treated engine shows reduced heat loss over early expansion—including the CADs spanning combustion. This retention of energy in-cylinder fosters more complete oxidation of fuel, boosting combustion efficiency, while also increasing the engine cycle's thermal efficiency.

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Fig. 10

Cylinder pressure (a) and bulk gas temperature (b) for the 2400 rpm fuel match/phase match data. Phasing for both peak pressure and peak bulk temperature events are consistent between metal and APS engine configurations.

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Fig. 11

Raw sub-TBC temperature measurements for 400 consecutive cycles of radiation chamber data. (For clarity, every eighth cycle is plotted.)

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Fig. 12

Phase-averaged temperature data with additional prefiltering applied. The 95% confidence interval is overlaid.

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Fig. 13

Raw sub-TBC temperature measurements collected over 500 consecutive fired engine cycles under fuel match/phase match conditions: 1200 rpm, 11.7 mg/cycle of fuel, 104 °C TIntake, 6% EGR. For clarity, every tenth cycle is plotted.

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Fig. 14

Phase-averaged engine temperature data (1200 rpm, firing, fuel match/phase match conditions) with additional prefiltering applied. The 95% confidence interval is overlaid.

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Fig. 15

Raw cylinder pressure measurements collected over 500 consecutive fired cycles under fuel match/phase match conditions: 1200 rpm, 11.7 mg/cycle of fuel, 104 °C TIntake, 6% EGR. For clarity, every tenth cycle is plotted.

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Fig. 16

Phase-averaged cylinder pressure data (1200 rpm, firing) with additional prefiltering applied. A 95% confidence interval is also shown. High-pressure region is magnified to show detail.

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Fig. 17

SFSM versus Fourier surface heat flux results for ex situ radiation chamber temperature measurements. The SFSM results are bounded by the standard deviation (±) of the surface heat flux estimate. This interval is calculated using the filter coefficient approach described in Appendix B.

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Fig. 18

SFSM versus Fourier surface heat flux results for in situ engine temperature measurements obtained for 1200 rpm FMPM operational conditions. SFSM results are bounded by the standard deviation (±) of the surface heat flux estimate. Note the decreased SFSM uncertainty over closed-cycle CADs.



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