Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Quasi-Dimensional Diesel Engine Combustion Modeling With Improved Diesel Spray Tip Penetration, Ignition Delay, and Heat Release Submodels

[+] Author and Article Information
Shuonan Xu, Zoran Filipi

Automotive Engineering Department,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607

Hirotaka Yamakawa, Keiya Nishida

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Hiroshima University,
Hiroshima 739-0046, Japan

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 15, 2017; final manuscript received March 15, 2017; published online June 6, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(11), 112802 (Jun 06, 2017) (17 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1067; doi: 10.1115/1.4036575 History: Received February 15, 2017; Revised March 15, 2017

Increasingly stringent fuel economy and CO2 emission regulations provide a strong impetus for development of high-efficiency engine technologies. Diesel engines dominate the heavy duty market and significant segments of the global light duty market due to their intrinsically higher thermal efficiency compared to spark-ignited (SI) engine counterparts. Predictive simulation tools can significantly reduce the time and cost associated with optimization of engine injection strategies, and enable investigation over a broad operating space unconstrained by availability of prototype hardware. In comparison with 0D/1D and 3D simulations, Quasi-Dimensional (quasi-D) models offer a balance between predictiveness and computational effort, thus making them very suitable for enhancing the fidelity of engine system simulation tools. A most widely used approach for diesel engine applications is a multizone spray and combustion model pioneered by Hiroyasu and his group. It divides diesel spray into packets and tracks fuel evaporation, air entrainment, gas properties, and ignition delay (induction time) individually during the injection and combustion event. However, original submodels are not well suited for modern diesel engines, and the main objective of this work is to develop a multizonal simulation capable of capturing the impact of high-injection pressures and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In particular, a new spray tip penetration submodel is developed based on measurements obtained in a high-pressure, high-temperature constant volume combustion vessel for pressures as high as 1450 bar. Next, ignition delay correlation is modified to capture the effect of reduced oxygen concentration in engines with EGR, and an algorithm considering the chemical reaction rate of hydrocarbon–oxygen mixture improves prediction of the heat release rates. Spray and combustion predictions were validated with experiments on a single-cylinder diesel engine with common rail fuel injection, charge boosting, and EGR.

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Fig. 1

Spatial illustration of spray modeling scheme—defining the packets

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Fig. 2

Definition of packets in a spray (X–Z plane)

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Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of quasi-D multizone spray-combustion simulation process

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Fig. 4

Optical experiment setup for measuring spray tip penetration

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Fig. 5

Comparison between Hiroyasu–Arai spray tip penetration model and experimental data

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Fig. 6

Comparison between improved spray tip penetration model and experimental data

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Fig. 7

Validation of improved spray tip penetration correlation

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Fig. 8

Geometrical configuration of tested engine

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Fig. 9

Cylinder pressure from experiment measurement. Two engine speed and load points are shown.

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Fig. 10

Apparent heat release rate derived from measured cylinder pressure data

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Fig. 11

Detection of start of combustion using second derivative of cylinder pressure

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Fig. 12

Comparison between the prediction results from existing ignition delay model and experimental data

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Fig. 13

Least-square fit of the ignition delay model coefficients

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Fig. 14

Comparison between the prediction results from improved ignition delay model and experimental data

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Fig. 15

Validation of simulation with experimental data at low speed low load conditions: (a) without EGR and (b) with EGR

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Fig. 16

Validation of simulation with experiment data at high speed high load conditions: (a) without EGR and (b) with EGR

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Fig. 17

Comparison between simulation results from the model developed in this work and the model from Hiroyasu's framework

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Fig. 18

Simulated temperature history in individual packets

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Fig. 19

Simulated temperature history of burned, unburned, and bulk gas temperatures: (a) low speed low load and (b) high speed high load

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Fig. 20

Simulated heat transfer rate and high speed high load without EGR

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Fig. 21

Simulated NOx formation history: (a) low speed low load and (b) high speed high load

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Fig. 22

Comparison between simulation predicted NOx concentration and experiment data



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