Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Numerical and Experimental Studies on a Syngas-Fired Ultra Low NOx Combustor

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Krishna

Clean Combustion Research Center,
King Abdullah University of
Science and Technology,
Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: krishna.seshagiri@kaust.edu.sa

R. V. Ravikrishna

Combustion and Spray Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bengaluru 560012, Karnataka, India
e-mail: ravikris@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 14, 2016; final manuscript received April 28, 2017; published online June 21, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ajay Agrawal.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(11), 111502 (Jun 21, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1015; doi: 10.1115/1.4036945 History: Received January 14, 2016; Revised April 28, 2017

Simulations and exhaust measurements of temperature and pollutants in a syngas-fired model trapped vortex combustor for stationary power generation applications are reported. Numerical simulations employing Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) and large eddy simulations (LES) with presumed probability distribution function (PPDF) model were also carried out. Mixture fraction profiles in the trapped vortex combustor (TVC) cavity for nonreacting conditions show that LES simulations are able to capture the mean mixing field better than the RANS-based approach. This is attributed to the prediction of the jet decay rate and is reflected on the mean velocity magnitude fields, which reinforce this observation at different sections in the cavity. Both RANS and LES simulations show close agreement with the experimentally measured OH concentration; however, the RANS approach does not perform satisfactorily in capturing the trend of velocity magnitude. LES simulations satisfactorily capture the trend observed in exhaust measurements which is primarily attributed to the flame stabilization mechanism. In the exhaust measurements, mixing enhancement struts were employed, and their effect was evaluated. The exhaust temperature pattern factor was found to be poor for baseline cases, but improved with the introduction of struts. NO emissions were steadily below 3 ppm across various flow conditions, whereas CO emissions tended to increase with increasing momentum flux ratios (MFRs) and mainstream fuel addition. Combustion efficiencies ∼96% were observed for all conditions. The performance characteristics were found to be favorable at higher MFRs with low pattern factors and high combustion efficiencies.

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Singhal, A. , and Ravikrishna, R. V. , 2011, “ Single Cavity Trapped Vortex Combustion Dynamics—Part 1: Experiments,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 3(1), pp. 23–44. [CrossRef]
Singhal, A. , and Ravikrishna, R. V. , 2011, “ Single Cavity Trapped Vortex Combustion Dynamics—Part-2: Simulations,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 3(1), pp. 45–52. [CrossRef]
Agarwal, K. K. , and Ravikrishna, R. V. , 2011, “ Experimental and Numerical Studies in a Compact Trapped Vortex Combustor: Stability Assessment and Augmentation,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 183(12), pp. 1308–1327. [CrossRef]
Agarwal, K. K. , and Ravikrishna, R. V. , 2012, “ Validation of a Modified Eddy Dissipation Concept Model for Stationary and Non-Stationary Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 184(2), pp. 151–164. [CrossRef]
Agarwal, K. K. , and Ravikrishna, R. V. , 2013, “ Mixing Enhancement in a Compact Trapped Vortex Combustor,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 185(3), pp. 363–378. [CrossRef]
Krishna, S. , and Ravikrishna, R. V. , 2015, “ Optical Diagnostics of Fuel-Air Mixing and Vortex Formation in a Cavity Combustor,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 61, pp. 163–176. [CrossRef]
Krishna, S. , and Ravikrishna, R. V. , 2015, “ Quantitative OH PLIF Diagnostics of Syngas and Methane Combustion in a Cavity Combustor,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 187(11), pp. 1661–1682. [CrossRef]
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Krishna, S. , Pramanik, S. , and Ravikrishna, R. V. , 2013, “ Numerical Modelling of a Turbulent Non-Premixed CO/H2/N2 Flame,” 23rd National Conference on IC Engines and Combustion (NCICEC), Surat, India, Dec. 13–16.
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Fig. 1

Single cavity TVC combustor rig and schematic with dimensions

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Fig. 2

Grid independence results for RANS and LES simulations

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Fig. 3

Stations for comparison of simulations and experimental results

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Fig. 4

CO mass fraction and velocity magnitude contours for case 1 (MFR 4.5)

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Fig. 5

Mixture fraction profiles at different sections for MFR 4.5, 1.1, and 0.3

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Fig. 6

Velocity magnitude profiles at Sec. 2 (cavity center) for MFR 4.5, 1.1, and 0.3

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Fig. 7

OH concentration contours for case 1 (MFR 4.5)

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Fig. 8

OH concentration contours for case 2 (MFR 1.1)

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Fig. 9

OH concentration profiles at different Secs. 2 and 3 for MFR 4.5, 1.1, and 0.3

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Fig. 10

Velocity magnitude profiles at Sec. 3 for MFR 4.5, 1.1 and 0.3

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Fig. 11

Thermocouple measurement locations and flow enhancement struts

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Fig. 13

Temperature distribution with mainstream premixing and struts

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Fig. 14

Broadband luminosity images for MFR 4.5 for baseline, premixing, and struts cases

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Fig. 15

Comparison of temperature and pollutant emission at the exit plane for experiments and simulations

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Fig. 12

Baseline temperature distribution



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