Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Oil and Gas Applications

Process Control for Compression Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Rainer Kurz

Solar Turbines, Incorporated,
San Diego, CA 92123
e-mail: rkurz@solarturbines.com

Klaus Brun

Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX 78238
e-mail: klaus.brun@swri.org

Contributed by the Oil and Gas Applications Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 6, 2017; final manuscript received July 11, 2017; published online October 3, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(2), 022401 (Oct 03, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1309; doi: 10.1115/1.4037723 History: Received July 06, 2017; Revised July 11, 2017

This paper discusses the interaction between a centrifugal compressor and the process, and as a result, the control requirements for centrifugal compressor packages. The focus is on variable speed, upstream, and midstream applications. The impact of the interaction between system characteristics and compressor characteristics both under steady-state and transient conditions is explained. Also considered are the concepts to optimize and control the units. Special attention is given to the issue of surge avoidance. Additionally, the impact of the process and how the process dynamics interact with the compressor is analyzed, categorized, and explained.

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Kurz, R. , White, R. C. , and Brun, K. , 2012, “ Upstream and Midstream Compression Applications: Part 2—Implications on Operation and Control of the Compression Equipment,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68006.
Botros, K. K. , and Ganesan, S. T. , 2008, “ Dynamic Instabilities in Industrial Compression Systems With Centrifugal Compressors,” 37th Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, Sept. 8–11, pp. 119–132.
Botros, K. K. , 2011, “ Single vs. Dual Recycle System Requirements in the Design of High Pressure Ratio, Low Inertia Centrifugal Compressor Stations,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45002.
White, R. C. , and Kurz, R. , 2006, “ Surge Avoidance for Compressor Systems,” 35th Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, Sept. 25–28, pp. 123–134.
Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , and Venturini, M. , 2007, “ Development of a One-Dimensional Modular Dynamic Model for the Simulation of Surge in Compression Systems,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129(3), pp. 437–447. [CrossRef]
Blieske, M. , Kurz, R. , Garcia-Hernandez, A. , and Brun, K. , 2011, “ Centrifugal Compressors During Fast Transients,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(7), p. 072401. [CrossRef]
Kurz, R. , White, R. C. , and Brun, K. , 2015, “ Surge Control and Dynamic Behavior for Centrifugal Gas Compressors,” Third Middle East Turbomachinery Symposium, Doha, Qatar, Feb. 16–18, pp. 1–12.
Rasmussen, P. C. , and Kurz, R. , 2009, “ Centrifugal Compressor Applications,” 38th Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, Sept. 14–17, pp. 169–186.
Belardini, E. , Rubino, D. T. , Tapinassi, L. , and Pelella, M. , 2016, “ Four Quadrant Centrifugal Compressor Performance,” First Asia Turbomachinery and Pump Symposium, Singapore, Mar. 13–15, pp. 1–10.
Aust, N. , 1988, “ Ein Verfahren zur digitalen Simulation instationaerer Vorgaenge in Verdichteranlagen,” Ph. D. dissertation, Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
Kurz, R. , and Brun, K. , 2009, “ Assessment of Compressors in Gas Storage Applications,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59258.
Kurz, R. , White, R. C. , and Brun, K. , 2014, “ Transient Operation in Pipeline Compressor Stations,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-25016.
Kurz, R. , and White, R. C. , 2004, “ Surge Avoidance in Gas Compression Systems,” ASME J. Turbomach., 126(4), pp. 501–506. [CrossRef]
Moore, J. J. , Garcia-Hernandez, A. , Blieske, M. , Kurz, R. , and Brun, K. , 2009, “ Transient Surge Measurements of a Centrifugal Compressor Station During Emergency Shutdowns,” 38th Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, Sept. 14–17, pp. 13–26.
Noall, M. , and Couch, W. , 2003, “ Performance and Endurance Tests of Six Mainline Compressor Valves in Natural Gas Compression Service,” Gas Machinery Conference (GMC), Salt Lake City, UT, Oct. 6–8, pp. 1–13.
Kurz, R. , Winkelmann, B. , and Mokhatab, S. , 2010, “ Efficiency and Operating Characteristics of Centrifugal and Reciprocating Compressors,” Pipeline Gas J., 237(10), pp. 42–46.


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Fig. 5

Different compressor configurations: (a) single section, straight through compressor, (b) multisection compressor, and (c) multibody tandem

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Fig. 4

Power consumption for different control methods

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Fig. 2

Control methods for centrifugal compressors: throttling, variable speed, and adjustable guide vanes [8]

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Fig. 1

Head–flow characteristic of a compressor at constant speed. Operation at a flow higher or lower than the design flow causes incidence losses.

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Fig. 6

Three-section compressor train with two side streams

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Fig. 7

Compressors for series and parallel operation

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Fig. 8

Behavior of a single-stage centrifugal compressor at positive and negative flow, showing isentropic head coefficient versus flow for machine Mach numbers from 0.57 to 0.85 [9]

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Fig. 9

System characteristics and compressor map

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Fig. 10

Load reduction: (left) pressure control and (right) flow control

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Fig. 11

Available power, compressor map, and pipeline characteristic

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Fig. 12

Typical operating points if transient conditions are considered, in this case due to a fast engine acceleration from 50% to 100% load

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Fig. 13

Compressor efficiency at different flow rates based on operation along a steady-state pipeline characteristic (pressure ratio at 100% flow = 1.4)

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Fig. 14

Load increase: (left) pressure control and (right) flow control



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