Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Experimental Study of Aeronautical Ignition in a Swirled Confined Jet-Spray Burner

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Marrero-Santiago

Normandie Université,
INSA et Université de Rouen,
Saint Etienne du Rouvray 76800, France
e-mail: marreroj@coria.fr

A. Verdier, C. Brunet, A. Vandel, G. Godard, G. Cabot, M. Boukhalfa, B. Renou

Normandie Université,
INSA et Université de Rouen,
Saint Etienne du Rouvray 76800, France

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 7, 2017; final manuscript received July 12, 2017; published online October 3, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(2), 021502 (Oct 03, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1316; doi: 10.1115/1.4037752 History: Received July 07, 2017; Revised July 12, 2017

Aeronautical gas turbine ignition is still not well understood and its management and control are mandatory for new lean-burner designs. The fundamental aspects of swirled confined two-phase flow ignition are addressed in the present work. Two facilities enable the analysis of two characteristic phases of the process. The knowledge for ignition, acoustics and instabilities (KIAI)-Spray single-injector burner was investigated in terms of local flow properties, including the air velocity and droplet fuel (n-heptane) size-velocity characterization by phase Doppler anemometry (PDA), and the study of local equivalence ratio by means of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) on a tracer (toluene). The initial spark location inside the chamber is vital to ensure successful ignition. An ignition probability map was elaborated varying the location of a 532 nm laser-induced spark in the chamber under ultralean nominal conditions (ϕ = 0.61). The outer recirculation zone (ORZ) was found to be the best region for placing a spark and successfully igniting the mixture. A strong correlation was found between the ignition probability field and the airflow turbulent kinetic energy and velocity fields. Local equivalence ratio enhances the importance of the ORZ. Once a successful ignition is accomplished on one injector, the injector-to-injector flame propagation must be examined. High-speed visualization through two synchronized perpendicular cameras was applied on the KIAI-Spray linear multi-injector burner. Four different injector-to-injector distances and four fuels of different volatilities (n-heptane, n-decane, n-dodecane, and jet-A1 kerosene) were evaluated. Spray branches and interinjector regions changed with the interinjector distance. Two different flame propagation mechanisms were identified: the direct radial propagation and the arc propagation mode. Ignition delay times were modified with the injector-to-injector distance and with the different fuels.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Ballal, D. , and Lefebvre, A. H. , 1974, “The Influence of Flow Parameters on Minimum Ignition Energy and Quenching Distance,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 15(1), pp. 1473–1481. [CrossRef]
Lewis, B. , and von Elbe, G. , 1987, Combustion, Flames Explosions of Gases, 3rd ed., Academic Press, Orlando, FL.
Cardin, C. , Renou, B. , Cabot, G. , and Boukhalfa, A. M. , 2013, “ Experimental Analysis of Laser-Induced Spark Ignition of Lean Turbulent Premixed Flames: New Insight Into Ignition Transition,” Combust. Flame, 160(8), pp. 1414–1427. [CrossRef]
Ahmed, S. F. , Balachandran, R. , Marchione, T. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2007, “ Spark Ignition of Turbulent Nonpremixed Bluff-Body Flames,” Combust. Flame, 151(1–2), pp. 366–385. [CrossRef]
Shy, S. S. , Liu, C. C. , and Shih, W. T. , 2010, “ Ignition Transition in Turbulent Premixed Combustion,” Combust. Flame, 157(2), pp. 341–350. [CrossRef]
Marchione, T. , Ahmed, S. F. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2009, “ Ignition of Turbulent Swirling n-Heptane Spray Flames Using Single and Multiple Sparks,” Combust. Flame, 156(1), pp. 166–180. [CrossRef]
Letty, C. , Mastorakos, E. , Masri, A. R. , Juddoo, M. , and O’Loughlin, W. , 2012, “ Structure of Igniting Ethanol and n-Heptane Spray Flames With and Without Swirl,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 43, pp. 47–54. [CrossRef]
Ballal, D. R. , and Lefebvre, A. H. , 1981, “ A General Model of Spark Ignition for Gaseous and Liquid Fuel-Air Mixtures,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 18(1), pp. 1737–1746. [CrossRef]
Moesl, K. G. , Vollmer, K. G. , Sattelmayer, T. , Eckstein, J. , and Kopecek, H. , 2009, “ Experimental Study on Laser-Induced Ignition of Swirl-Stabilized Kerosene Flames,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 131(2), p. 021501. [CrossRef]
Cordier, M. , Vandel, A. , Renou, B. , Cabot, G. , Boukhalfa, A. M. , Esclapez, L. , Barré, D. , Cuenot, B. , and Gicquel, L. , 2013, “ Experimental and Numerical Analysis of an Ignition Sequence in a Multiple-Injectors Burner,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-94681.
Barré, D. , Esclapez, L. , Cordier, M. , Riber, E. , Cuenot, B. , Staffelbach, G. , Renou, B. , Vandel, A. , Gicquel, L. Y. M. , and Cabot, G. , 2014, “ Flame Propagation in Aeronautical Swirled Multi-Burners: Experimental and Numerical Investigation,” Combust. Flame, 161(9), pp. 2387–2405. [CrossRef]
Kao, Y.-H. , Denton, M. , Wang, X. , Jeng, S.-M. , and Lai, M.-C. , 2015, “ Experimental Spray Structure and Combustion of a Linearly-Arranged 5 Swirler Array,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42509.
Bach, E. , Kariuki, J. , Dawson, J. R. , Mastorakos, E. , and Bauer, H. J. , 2013, “ Spark Ignition of Single Bluff-Body Premixed Flames and Annular Combustors,” AIAA Paper No. 2013-1182.
Bourgouin, J.-F. , Durox, D. , Schuller, T. , Beaunier, J. , and Candel, S. , 2013, “ Ignition Dynamics of an Annular Combustor Equipped With Multiple Swirling Injectors,” Combust. Flame, 160(8), pp. 1398–1413. [CrossRef]
Cordier, M. , Vandel, A. , Cabot, G. , Renou, B. , and Boukhalfa, A. M. , 2013, “ Laser-Induced Spark Ignition of Premixed Confined Swirled Flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 185(3), pp. 379–407. [CrossRef]
Rossow, B. , 2011, “ Processus Photophysiques de Molécules Organiques Fluorescentes et du Kérosène—Applications aux Foyers de Combustion,” Ph.D. thesis, Paris-Sud 11, Orsay, France.
Kamal, K. , 2007, “ Global Combustion Responses of Practical Hydrocarbon Fuels: n-Heptane, Iso-Octane, n-Decane, n-Dodecane and Ethylene,” Ph.D. thesis, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.
Prieur, K. , Durox, D. , Beaunier, J. , Schuller, T. , and Candel, S. , 2017, “ Ignition Dynamics in an Annular Combustor for Liquid Spray and Premixed Gaseous Injection,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 36(3), pp. 3717–3724.
Philip, M. , Boileau, M. , Vicquelin, R. , Riber, E. , Schmitt, T. , Cuenot, B. , Durox, D. , and Candel, S. , 2015, “ Large Eddy Simulations of the Ignition Sequence of an Annular Multiple-Injector Combustor,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 35(3), pp. 3159–3166. [CrossRef]
Cordier, M. , 2013, “ Allumage et Propagation de Flamme Dans les Ecoulements Fortement Swirlés: Etudes Expérimentales et Numériques,” Ph.D. thesis, INSA de Rouen, Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, France.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Single-injector facility and (b) multi-injector facility

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

PDA mesh (dots) and ignition probability mesh (pluses)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

PLIF-toluene experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Mean components of air velocity flow for nonreactive conditions. U1—axial, U2—radial, and U3—azimuthal.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Turbulent kinetic energy of the air in nonreactive conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Left: fuel droplet diameter histograms for two points. Middle: droplet detection for the fuel droplets divided by size-classes. Right: fuel droplet mean diameter (D10). Nonreactive conditions.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Mean components of fuel droplet velocity separated in three size-classes. Nonreactive conditions. Triangles represent the [0–10] μm group, squares the [20–30] μm group, and circles the [40–50] μm group. U1—axial, U2—radial, U2—azimuthal.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Instantaneous corrected filtered PLIF-toluene image. Equivalence ratio map.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Mean image from instantaneous corrected filtered PLIF-toluene images. Equivalence ratio map. Horizontal and vertical lines are the extracted profiles for Fig. 10.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Horizontal and vertical equivalence ratio profiles extracted from the mean image of equivalence ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11 Left

airflow turbulent kinetic energy (m2 s−2). Right: ignition probability map (lines) overlapped to the air mean velocity magnitude (ms−1).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Ignition sequence for d = 9 cm for n-decane. Direct radial propagation mechanism.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Ignition sequence for d = 18 cm for n-decane. Arc propagation mechanism.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Spray branches forming droplet bridges. Droplet imaging in the interinjector region in nonreacting conditions.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Ignition delay time per unit of distance for four different fuels and different injector-to-injector distances. Calculated dividing the total ignition delay time by the straight distance from the spark plug to the last ignited injector.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In