Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Industrial and Cogeneration

Development of a Simulation Model of Transient Operation of Micro-Combined Heat and Power Systems in a Microgrid

[+] Author and Article Information
Francesco Ippolito, Mauro Venturini

Dipartimento di Ingegneria,
Università degli Studi di Ferrara,
Ferrara 44122, Italy

Contributed by the Industrial and Cogeneration Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 14, 2017; final manuscript received July 29, 2017; published online October 25, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(3), 032001 (Oct 25, 2017) (15 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1358; doi: 10.1115/1.4037962 History: Received July 14, 2017; Revised July 29, 2017

This paper presents the development of a simulation tool for modeling the transient behavior of micro-CHP (combined heat and power) systems, equipped with both thermal and electric storage units and connected with both electric and district heating grid (DHG). The prime mover (PM) considered in this paper is an internal combustion reciprocating engine (ICE), which is currently the only well-established micro-CHP technology. Different users, characterized by different demands of electric and thermal energy, both in terms of absolute value and electric-to-thermal energy ratio, are analyzed in this paper. Both summer and winter hourly trends of electric and thermal energy demand are simulated by using literature data. The results present a comprehensive energy analysis of all scenarios on a daily basis, in terms of both user demand met and energy share among system components. The transient response of the PM and the thermal energy storage (TES) is also analyzed for the two scenarios with the lowest and highest daily energy demand, together with the trend over time of the state of charge of both thermal and electric energy storage (EES).

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Macchi, E. , Campanari, S. , and Silva, P. , 2006, La Microcogenerazione a Gas Naturale, Polipress, Bologna, Italy (in Italian).
Chicco, G. , and Mancarella, P. , 2009, “ Distributed Multi-Generation: A Comprehensive View,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 13(3), pp. 535–551. [CrossRef]
Bianchi, M. , and Spina, P. R. , 2010, “ Integrazione di Sistemi Cogenerativi Innovativi di Piccolissima Taglia Nelle Reti di Distribuzione Dell'energia Elettrica, Termica e Frigorifera,” Rome, Italy, Report No. RdS/2010/220 (in Italian).
Barbieri, E. S. , Spina, P. R. , and Venturini, M. , 2012, “ Analysis of Innovative Micro-CHP Systems to Meet Household Energy Demands,” Appl. Energy, 97, pp. 723–733. [CrossRef]
Maghanki, M. M. , Ghobadian, B. , Najafi, G. , and Galogah, R. J. , 2013, “ Micro Combined Heat and Power (MCHP) Technologies and Application,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 28, pp. 510–524. [CrossRef]
Bianchi, M. , De Pascale, A. , and Spina, P. R. , 2012, “ Guidelines for Residential Micro-CHP Systems Design,” Appl. Energy, 97, pp. 673–685. [CrossRef]
Campos Celador, A. , Odriozola, M. , and Sala, J. M. , 2011, “ Implications of the Modelling of Stratified Hot Water Storage Tanks in the Simulation of CHP Plants,” Energy Convers. Manage., 52(8–9), pp. 3018–3026. [CrossRef]
Chesi, A. , Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , Magnani, S. , and Tarani, F. , 2013, “ Influence of the Heat Storage Size on the Plant Performances in a Smart User Case Study,” Appl. Energy, 112, pp. 1454–1465. [CrossRef]
Blarke, M. B. , and Lund, H. , 2008, “ The Effectiveness of Storage and Relocation Options in Renewable Energy Systems,” Renewable Energy, 33(7), pp. 1499–1507. [CrossRef]
Prando, D. , Patuzzi, F. , Pernigotto, G. , Gasparella, A. , and Baratieri, M. , 2014, “ Biomass Gasification System for Residential Application: An Integrated Simulation Approach,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 71(1), pp. 152–160. [CrossRef]
Cau, G. , Cocco, D. , and Petrollese, M. , 2014, “ Modeling and Simulation of an Isolated Hybrid Micro-Grid With Hydrogen Production and Storage,” Energy Procedia, 45, pp. 12–21. [CrossRef]
Dorer, V. , and Weber, A. , 2009, “ Energy and CO2 Emissions Performance Assessment of Residential Micro-Cogeneration Systems With Dynamic Whole-Building Simulation Programs,” Energy Convers. Manage., 50(3), pp. 648–657. [CrossRef]
Brandoni, C. , Arteconi, A. , Ciriachi, G. , and Polonara, F. , 2014, “ Assessing the Impact of Micro-Generation Technologies on Local Sustainability,” Energy Convers. Manage., 87, pp. 1281–1290. [CrossRef]
Comodi, G. , Cioccolanti, L. , and Renzi, M. , 2014, “ Modelling the Italian Household Sector at the Municipal Scale: Micro-CHP, Renewables and Energy Efficiency,” Energy, 68, pp. 92–103. [CrossRef]
Angrisani, G. , Canelli, M. , Roselli, C. , and Sasso, M. , 2015, “ Microcogeneration in Building With Low Energy Demand in Load Sharing Application,” Energy Convers. Manage., 100, pp. 78–89. [CrossRef]
Park, C. , Kim, C. , Lee, S. , Lim, G. , Lee, S. , and Choi, Y. , 2015, “ Effect on Control Strategy on Performance and Emissions of Natural Gas Engine for Cogeneration System,” Energy, 82, pp. 353–360. [CrossRef]
Mongibello, L. , Bianco, N. , Caliano, M. , and Graditi, G. , 2015, “ Influence of Heat Dumping on the Operation of Residential Micro-CHP Systems,” Appl. Energy, 160, pp. 206–220. [CrossRef]
Thomas, B. , 2014, “ Experimental Determination of Efficiency Factors for Different Micro-CHP Units According to the Standard DIN 4709,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 71(2), pp. 721–728. [CrossRef]
Alahäivälä, A. , Heß, T. , Cao, S. , and Lehtonen, M. , 2015, “ Analyzing the Optimal Coordination of a Residential Micro-CHP System With a Power Sink,” Appl. Energy, 149, pp. 326–337. [CrossRef]
Bianchi, M. , De Pascale, A. , Melino, F. , and Peretto, A. , 2014, “ Performance Prediction of Micro-CHP Systems Using Simple Virtual Operating Cycles,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 71(2), pp. 771–779. [CrossRef]
Gu, W. , Wu, Z. , Bo, R. , Liu, W. , Zhou, G. , Chen, W. , and Wu, Z. , 2014, “ Modelling, Planning and Optimal Energy Management of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Microgrid: A Review,” Electr. Power Energy Syst., 54, pp. 26–37. [CrossRef]
Darkovich, K. , Kenney, B. , MacNeil, D. D. , and Armstrong, M. M. , 2015, “ Control Strategy and Cycling Demands for Li-Ion Storage Batteries in Residential Micro-Cogeneration Systems,” Appl. Energy, 141, pp. 32–41. [CrossRef]
Fares, R. L. , and Webber, M. E. , 2015, “ Combining a Dynamic Battery Model With High-Resolution Smart Grid Data to Assess Microgrid Islanding Lifetime,” Appl. Energy, 137, pp. 482–489. [CrossRef]
Spitalny, L. , Myrzik, J. M. A. , and Mehlhorn, T. , 2014, “ Estimation of the Economic Addressable Market of Micro-CHP and Heat Pumps Based on the Status of the Residential Building Sector in Germany,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 71(2), pp. 838–846. [CrossRef]
Torchio, M. F. , 2015, “ Comparison of District Heating CHP and Distributed Generation CHP With Energy, Environmental, and Economic Criteria for Northern Italy,” Energy Convers. Manage., 92, pp. 114–128. [CrossRef]
Adam, A. , Fraga, E. S. , and Brett, D. J. L. , 2015, “ Options for Residential Building Services Design Using Fuel Cell Based Micro-CHP and the Potential for Heat Integration,” Appl. Energy, 138, pp. 685–694. [CrossRef]
Menon, R. P. , Marechal, F. , and Paolone, M. , 2016, “ Intra-Day Electro-Thermal Model Predictive Control for Polygeneration Systems in Microgrids,” Energy, 104, pp. 308–319. [CrossRef]
Shaneb, O. A. , Taylor, P. C. , and Coates, G. , 2012, “ Optimal Online Operation of Residential μCHP Systems Using Linear Programming,” Energy Build., 44, pp. 17–25. [CrossRef]
Su, W. , and Wang, J. , 2012, “ Energy Management Systems in Microgrid Operations,” Electr. J., 25(8), pp. 45–60. [CrossRef]
Mahmoud, M. S. , Azher Hussain, S. , and Abido, M. A. , 2014, “ Modeling and Control of Microgrid: An Overview,” J. Franklin Inst., 351(5), pp. 2822–2859. [CrossRef]
Gupta, R. A. , and Gupta, N. K. , 2015, “ A Robust Optimization Based Approach for Microgrid Operation in Deregulated Environment,” Energy Convers. Manage., 93, pp. 121–131. [CrossRef]
Zidan, A. , Gabbar, H. A. , and Eldessouky, A. , 2015, “ Optimal Planning of Combined Heat and Power Systems Within Microgrids,” Energy, 93(Part 1), pp. 235–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.09.039
Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , Spina, P. R. , and Venturini, M. , 2013, “ Optimal Allocation of Thermal, Electric and Cooling Loads Among Generation Technologies in Household Applications,” Appl. Energy, 112, pp. 205–214. [CrossRef]
Hafez, O. , and Bhattacharya, K. , 2012, “ Optimal Planning and Design of a Renewable Energy Based Supply System for Microgrids,” Renewable Energy, 45, pp. 7–15. [CrossRef]
Radosavljević, J. , Jevtić, M. , and Klimenta, D. , 2016, “ Energy and Operation Management of a Microgrid Using Particle Swarm Optimization,” Eng. Optim., 48(5), pp. 811–830. [CrossRef]
Barberis, S. , Rivarolo, M. , Traverso, A. , and Massardo, A. F. , 2016, “ Thermo-Economic Analysis of the Energy Storage Role in a Real Polygenerative District,” J. Energy Storage, 5, pp. 187–202. [CrossRef]
Zachar, M. , and Daoutidis, P. , 2015, “ Understanding and Predicting the Impact of Location and Load on Microgrid Design,” Energy, 90(Part 1), pp. 1005–1023. [CrossRef]
Venturini, M. , 2005, “ Development and Experimental Validation of a Compressor Dynamic Model,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127(3), pp. 599–608. [CrossRef]
Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , and Venturini, M. , 2009, “ Analysis of Biogas Compression System Dynamics,” Appl. Energy, 86(11), pp. 2466–2475. [CrossRef]
Ippolito, F. , and Venturini, M. , 2017, “ Micro-CHP System Transient Operation in a Residential User Microgrid,” 30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS), July 2–6, San Diego, CA, Paper No. 16.
Portoraro, A. , Ruscica, G. , and Badami, M. , 2010, “ Micro-Cogenerazione nel Settore Residenziale con l'utilizzo di Motori a Combustione Interna: Sviluppo di un Modello Matematico per la Simulazione Oraria e Analisi di un Caso Reale,” Rome, Italy, Report No. RdS/2010/227 (in Italian).
Onovwiona, H. I. , Ismet Ugursal, V. , and Fung, A. S. , 2007, “ Modeling of Internal Combustion Engine Based Cogeneration Systems for Residential Applications,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 27(5–6), pp. 848–861. [CrossRef]
Malavolta, M. , Beyene, A. , and Venturini, M. , 2010, “ Experimental Implementation of a Micro-Scale ORC-Based CHP Energy System for Domestic Applications,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2010-37208.
Ziviani, D. , Beyene, A. , and Venturini, M. , 2014, “ Advances and Challenges in ORC Systems Modeling for Low Grade Thermal Energy Recovery,” Appl. Energy, 121, pp. 79–95. [CrossRef]
SenerTec, 2017, “SenerTec,” SenerTec, Schweinfurt, Germany, accessed July 29, 2017, https://senertec.com/


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Architecture of the complete simulation model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

PM electric efficiency and exhaust gas outlet temperature versus PM normalized electric power output

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Control logic in thermal load following mode

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

User electric-to-thermal energy daily rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

State of charge of TES and EES (case A + 2; summer)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) TES transient response (case A + 2; summer) and (b) TES transient response (case E + 5; summer)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Daily thermal power (case A + 2; summer)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Thermal energy share (case A + 2; summer)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Daily electric power (case A + 2; summer)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Electric energy share (case A + 2; summer)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Daily thermal power (case A + 2; winter)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Thermal energy share (case A + 2; winter)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Daily electric power (case A + 2; winter)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Electric energy share (case A + 2; winter)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Daily thermal power (case E + 5; summer)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Thermal energy share (case E + 5; summer)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Daily electric power (case E + 5; summer)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Electric energy share (case E + 5; summer)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Daily thermal power (case E + 5; winter)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Thermal energy share (case E + 5; winter)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Daily electric power (case E + 5; winter)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

Electric energy share (case E + 5; winter)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 27

Power demand for user A [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 28

Power demand for user B [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 29

Power demand for user C [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 30

Power demand for user D [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 31

Power demand for user E [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 32

Power demand for user F [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

State of charge of TES and EES (case A + 2; winter)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

State of charge of TES and EES (case E + 5; summer)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

State of charge of TES and EES (case E + 5; winter)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

(a) PM transient response (case A + 2; summer) and (b) PM transient response (case E + 5; summer)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In