Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Flame Dynamics Intermittency in the Bistable Region Near a Subcritical Hopf Bifurcation

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Ebi

Laboratory for Thermal Processes
and Combustion,
Paul Scherrer Institute,
Villigen 5232, Switzerland
e-mail: dominik.ebi@psi.ch

A. Denisov

Institute of Thermal and Fluid Engineering,
School of Engineering Hochschule für
Technik FHNW,
Windisch 5210, Switzerland
e-mail: alexey.denisov@fhnw.ch

G. Bonciolini

CAPS Laboratory,
Mechanical and Process
Engineering Department,
ETH Zürich, Zürich 8092, Switzerland

E. Boujo

CAPS Laboratory,
Mechanical and Process
Engineering Department,
ETH Zürich,
Zürich 8092, Switzerland

N. Noiray

CAPS Laboratory,
Mechanical and Process
Engineering Department,
ETH Zürich,
Zürich 8092, Switzerland
e-mail: noirayn@ethz.ch

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 10, 2017; final manuscript received August 28, 2017; published online January 17, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(6), 061504 (Jan 17, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1450; doi: 10.1115/1.4038326 History: Received August 10, 2017; Revised August 28, 2017

We report experimental evidence of thermoacoustic bistability in a lab-scale turbulent combustor over a well-defined range of fuel–air equivalence ratios. Pressure oscillations are characterized by an intermittent behavior with “bursts,” i.e., sudden jumps between low and high amplitudes occurring at random time instants. The corresponding probability density functions (PDFs) of the acoustic pressure signal show clearly separated maxima when the burner is operated in the bistable region. The gain and phase between acoustic pressure and heat release rate fluctuations are evaluated at the modal frequency from simultaneously recorded flame chemiluminescence and acoustic pressure. The representation of the corresponding statistics is new and particularly informative. It shows that the system is characterized, in average, by a nearly constant gain and by a drift of the phase as function of the oscillation amplitude. This finding may suggest that the bistability does not result from an amplitude-dependent balance between flame gain and acoustic damping, but rather from the nonconstant phase difference between the acoustic pressure and the coherent fluctuations of heat release rate.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Culick, F. E. , and Kuentzmann, P. , 2006, “Unsteady Motions in Combustion Chambers for Propulsion Systems,” RTO AGARDograph, NATO Research and Technology Organization, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, No. AG-AVT-039. http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA466461
Burnley, V. S. , and Culick, F. E. C. , 2000, “Influence of Random Excitations on Acoustic Instabilities in Combustion Chambers,” AIAA J., 38(8), pp. 1403–1410. [CrossRef]
Waugh, I. C. , and Juniper, M. P. , 2011, “Triggering in a Thermoacoustic System With Stochastic Noise,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 3(3), pp. 225–241. [CrossRef]
Oefelein, J. , and Yang, V. , 1993, “Comprehensive Review of Liquid-Propellant Combustion Instabilities in F-1 Engines,” J. Propul. Power, 9(5), pp. 657–677. [CrossRef]
Lepers, J. , Krebs, W. , Prade, B. , Flohr, P. , Pollarolo, G. , and Ferrante, A. , 2005, “Investigation of Thermoacoustic Stability Limits of an Annular Gas Turbine Combustor Test-Rig With and Without Helmholtz-Resonators,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68246.
Rayleigh, J. , 1896, The Theory of Sound, Macmillan, New York.
Lieuwen, T. , 2012, Unsteady Combustor Physics, Cambridge University Press, New York. [CrossRef]
Nicoud, F. , and Poinsot, T. , 2005, “Thermoacoustic Instabilities: Should the Rayleigh Criterion Be Extended to Include Entropy Changes?,” Combust. Flame, 142(1–2), pp. 153–159. [CrossRef]
Bothien, M. R. , 2008, “Impedance Tuning: A Method for Active Control of the Acoustic Boundary Conditions of Combustion Test Rigs,” Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin. https://depositonce.tu-berlin.de/handle/11303/2355
Balasubramanian, K. , and Sujith, R. , 2008, “Thermoacoustic Instability in a Rijke Tube: Non-normality and Nonlinearity,” Phys. Fluids, 20(4), p. 044103. [CrossRef]
Preetham , Santosh, H. , and Lieuwen, T. , 2008, “Dynamics of Laminar Premixed Flames Forced by Harmonic Velocity Disturbances,” J. Propul. Power, 24(6), pp. 1390–1402. [CrossRef]
Moeck, J. P. , Bothien, M. R. , Schimek, S. , Lacarelle, A. , and Paschereit, C. O. , 2008, “Subcritical Thermoacoustic Instabilities in a Premixed Combustor,” AIAA Paper No. 2008-2946.
Kim, K. , and Hochgreb, S. , 2012, “Measurements of Triggering and Transient Growth in a Model Lean-Premixed Gas Turbine Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 159(3), pp. 1215–1227. [CrossRef]
Bellows, B. D. , Neumeier, Y. , and Lieuwen, T. , 2006, “Forced Response of a Swirling, Premixed Flame to Flow Disturbances,” J. Propul. Power, 22(5), pp. 1075–1084. [CrossRef]
Noiray, N. , Durox, D. , Schuller, T. , and Candel, S. , 2008, “A Unified Framework for Nonlinear Combustion Instability Analysis Based on the Flame Describing Function,” J. Fluid Mech., 615, pp. 139–167. [CrossRef]
Hubschmid, W. , Denisov, A. , and Biagioli, F. , 2014, “Acoustic Forcing on Swirling Flow: Experiments and Simulation,” Exp. Fluids, 55(9), p. 1808. [CrossRef]
Hong, S. , Shanbhogue, S. J. , Speth, R. L. , and Ghoniem, A. F. , 2013, “On the Phase Between Pressure and Heat Release Fluctuations for Propane/Hydrogen Flames and Its Role in Mode Transitions,” Combust. Flame, 160(12), pp. 2827–2842. [CrossRef]
Boudy, F. , Durox, D. , Schuller, T. , Jomaas, G. , and Candel, S. , 2011, “Describing Function Analysis of Limit Cycles in a Multiple Flame Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(6), p. 061502. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sketch of supercritical (left) and subcritical (right) Hopf bifurcations in a purely deterministic situation (without noise). Solid lines: stable fixed point (|p|=0) and stable limit cycle (|p|>0); dashed lines: unstable equilibrium states. Arrows illustrate how stable (resp. unstable) states are attractive (resp. repulsive).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the swirl combustor test rig including microphone locations relative to the burner inlet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Three cycles of band-pass filtered high-amplitude oscillations of all four microphones. (b) Power spectral density of the acoustic pressure recorded with microphone three for different equivalence ratios. The focus of this study is the dominant mode at f ≃ 150 Hz.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Acoustic pressure signals (bottom) and PDFs (top; different y scales) for different equivalence ratios

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Line-of-sight OH* chemiluminescence intensity at different phase angles. High-amplitude regime (ϕ = 0.595).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Normalized flame response: integrated chemiluminescence intensity versus acoustic oscillation amplitude, for two different combustors. Left: T.U. Berlin combustor (adapted from Ref. [12]). Right: PSI combustor (present study) at operating condition ϕ = 0.598.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Joint PDF of normalized acoustic pressure amplitude Aac with gain G=|IOH*|/|p| (top row), and with phase θ=∠(IOH*,p) (bottom row), for different equivalence ratios. In the central row, as a reference, the marginal PDF for the acoustic amplitude P(Aac).



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In