Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Catalytic Influence of Water Vapor on Lean Blow-Off and NOx Reduction for Pressurized Swirling Syngas Flames

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniel Pugh

Gas Turbine Research Centre,
Cardiff School of Engineering,
Cardiff University,
Wales CF24 3AA, UK
e-mail: pughdg@cardiff.ac.uk

Philip Bowen, Andrew Crayford, Steven Morris, Anthony Giles

Gas Turbine Research Centre,
Cardiff School of Engineering,
Cardiff University,
Wales CF24 3AA, UK

Richard Marsh, Jon Runyon

Gas Turbine Research Centre,
Cardiff School of Engineering,
Cardiff University,
Wales CF24 3AA, UK

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 28, 2017; final manuscript received August 30, 2017; published online January 17, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(6), 061502 (Jan 17, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1408; doi: 10.1115/1.4038417 History: Received July 28, 2017; Revised August 30, 2017

It has become increasingly cost-effective for the steel industry to invest in the capture of heavily carbonaceous basic oxygen furnace or converter gas, and use it to support the intensive energy demands of the integrated facility, or for surplus energy conversion in power plants. As industry strives for greater efficiency via ever more complex technologies, increased attention is being paid to investigate the complex behavior of by-product syngases. Recent studies have described and evidenced the enhancement of fundamental combustion parameters such as laminar flame speed due to the catalytic influence of H2O on heavily carbonaceous syngas mixtures. Direct formation of CO2 from CO is slow due to its high activation energy, and the presence of disassociated radical hydrogen facilitates chain branching species (such as OH), changing the dominant path for oxidation. The observed catalytic effect is nonmonotonic, with the reduction in flame temperature eventually prevailing, and overall reaction rate quenched. The potential benefits of changes in water loading are explored in terms of delayed lean blow-off (LBO), and primary emission reduction in a premixed turbulent swirling flame, scaled for practical relevance at conditions of elevated temperature (423 K) and pressure (0.1–0.3 MPa). Chemical kinetic models are used initially to characterize the influence that H2O has on the burning characteristics of the fuel blend employed, modeling laminar flame speed and extinction strain rate across an experimental range with H2O vapor fraction increased to eventually diminish the catalytic effect. These modeled predictions are used as a foundation to investigate the experimental flame. OH* chemiluminescence and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) are employed as optical diagnostic techniques to analyze changes in heat release structure resulting from the experimental variation in water loading. A comparison is made with a CH4/air flame and changes in LBO stability limits are quantified, measuring the incremental increase in air flow and again compared against chemical models. The compound benefit of CO and NOx reduction is quantified also, with production first decreasing due to the thermal effect of H2O addition from a reduction in flame temperature, coupled with the potential for further reduction from the change in lean stability limit. Power law correlations have been derived for change in pressure, and equivalent water loading. Hence, the catalytic effect of H2O on reaction pathways and reaction rate predicted and observed for laminar flames are appraised within the challenging environment of turbulent, swirl-stabilized flames at elevated temperature and pressure, characteristic of practical systems.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Worldsteel Committee on Economic Studies, 2014, “World Steel Statistics Archive,” Worldsteel Association, Brussels, Belgium, accessed Oct. 2, 2016, https://www.worldsteel.org/steel-by-topic/statistics/steel-statistical-yearbook-.html
Remus, R. , Aguado-Monsonet, M. A. , Roudier, S. , and San, L. D. , 2013, “Best Available Techniques Reference Document for Iron and Steel Production, Industrial Emissions Directive, 2010/75/EU, IPPC,” European Commission, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/BREF/IS_Adopted_03_2012.pdf
Das, A. K. , Kumar, K. , and Sung, C. , 2011, “Laminar Flame Speeds of Moist Syngas Mixtures,” Combust. Flame, 158(2), pp. 345–353. [CrossRef]
Pugh, D. G. , Crayford, A. P. , Bowen, P. J. , and Al-Naama, M. , 2016, “Parametric Investigation of Water Loading on Heavily Carbonaceous Syngases,” Combust. Flame, 164, pp. 126–136. [CrossRef]
Xie, Y. , Wang, J. , Xu, N. , Yu, S. , Zhang, M. , and Huang, Z. , 2014, “Thermal and Chemical Effects of Water Addition on Laminar Burning Velocity of Syngas,” Energy Fuels, 28(5), pp. 3391–3398. [CrossRef]
Pugh, D. G. , Crayford, A. P. , Bowen, P. J. , O'Doherty, T. , and Marsh, R. , 2014, “Variation in Laminar Burning Velocity and Markstein Length With Water Addition for Industrially Produced Syngases,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-25455.
Singh, D. , Nishiie, T. , Tanvir, S. , and Qiao, L. , 2012, “An Experimental and Kinetic Study of Syngas/Air Combustion at Elevated Temperatures and the Effect of Water Addition,” Fuel, 94, pp. 448–456. [CrossRef]
Pugh, D. G. , Bowen, P. , Crayford, A. , Marsh, R. , Runyon, J. , Morris, S. , and Giles, A. , 2017, “Dissociative Influence of H2O Vapour/Spray on Lean Blowoff and NOx Reduction for Heavily Carbonaceous Syngas Swirling Flames,” Combustion and Flame, 177, pp. 37–48.
Santner, J. , Dryer, F. , and Ju, Y. , 2012, “Effect of Water Content on Syngas Combustion at Elevated Pressure,” AIAA Paper No. 2012-0163.
Donohoe, N. , Heufer, K. A. , Aul, C. J. , Petersen, E. L. , Bourque, G. , Gordon, R. , and Curran, H. J. , 2015, “Influence of Steam Dilution on the Ignition of Hydrogen, Syngas and Natural Gas Blends at Elevated Pressures,” Combust. Flame, 162(4), pp. 1126–1135. [CrossRef]
Kéromnès, A. , Metcalfe, W. K. , Heufer, K. A. , Donohoe, N. , Das, A. K. , Sung, J. , Herzler, C. , Naumann, P. , Griebel, O. , Mathieu, M. C. , Krejci, E. L. , Petersen, C. , Pitz, W. J. , and Curran, H. J. , 2013, “An Experimental and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study of Hydrogen and Syngas Mixture Oxidation at Elevated Pressures,” Combust. Flame, 160(6), pp. 995–1011. [CrossRef]
Krejci, M. C. , Mathieu, O. , Vissotski, A. J. , Ravi, S. , Sikes, T. G. , Petersen, E. L. , Kérmonès, A. , Metcalfe, W. , and Curran, H. J. , 2013, “Laminar Flame Speed and Ignition Delay Time Data for the Kinetic Modeling of Hydrogen and Syngas Fuel Blends,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(2), p. 021503.
Rao, A. D. , 2013, Combined Cycle Systems for Near-Zero Emission Power Generation, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, Chap. 5.
Chigier, N. A. , and Beer, J. M. , 1964, “The Flow Region Near the Nozzle in Double Concentric Jets,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 86(4), pp. 797–804. [CrossRef]
Sheen, H. J. , Chen, W. J. , Jeng, S. Y. , and Huang, T. L. , 1996, “Correlation of Swirl Number for a Radial-Type Swirl Generator,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 12(4), pp. 444–451. [CrossRef]
Cabot, G. , Vauchelles, D. , Taupin, B. , and Boukhalfa, A. , 2004, “Experimental Study of Lean Premixed Turbulent Combustion in a Scale Gas Turbine Chamber,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 28(7), pp. 683–690. [CrossRef]
Panoutsos, C. S. , Hardalupas, Y. , and Taylor, A. M. K. P. , 2009, “Numerical Evaluation of Equivalence Ratio Measurement Using OH∗ and CH∗ Chemiluminescence in Premixed and Non-Premixed Methane–Air Flames,” Combust. Flame, 156(2), pp. 273–291. [CrossRef]
Lauer, M. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2008, “Heat Release Calculation in a Turbulent Swirl Flame From Laser and Chemiluminescence Measurements,” 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 7–10, pp. 1–12. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228481503_Heat_release_calculation_in_a_turbulent_swirl_flame_from_laser_and_chemiluminescence_measurements
Marsh, R. , Runyon, J. , Giles, A. , Morris, S. , Pugh, D. G. , Valera-Medina, A. , and Bowen, P. J. , 2016, “Premixed Methane Oxycombustion in Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide Atmospheres: Measurement of Operating Limits, Flame Location and Emissions,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 36(3), pp. 3949–3958.
Taamallah, S. , Shanbhogue, S. J. , and Ghoniem, A. F. , 2016, “Turbulent Flame Stabilization Modes in Premixed Swirl Combustion: Physical Mechanism and Karlovitz Number-Based Criterion,” Combust. Flame, 166, pp. 19–33. [CrossRef]
Killer, C. , 2013, “Abel Inversion Algorithm,” The Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA, accessed Dec. 1, 2015, http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/43639-abel-inversion-algorithm
Shanbhogue, S. J. , Sanusi, Y. S. , Taamallah, S. , Habib, M. A. , Mokheimer, E. M. A. , and Ghoniem, A. F. , 2016, “Flame Macrostructures, Combustion Instability and Extinction Strain Scaling in Swirl-Stabilized Premixed CH4/H2 Combustion,” Combust. Flame, 163, pp. 494–507. [CrossRef]
Runyon, J. , Marsh, R. , Sevcenco, Y. , Pugh, D. , and Morris, S. , 2015, “Development and Commissioning of a Chemiluminescence Imaging System for an Optically-Accessible High-Pressure Generic Swirl Burner,” Seventh European Combustion Meeting (ECM), Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 31–Apr. 2, pp. 1–6. http://orca.cf.ac.uk/95700/
Krishna, S. , and Ravikrishna, R. , 2015, “Quantitative OH Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence Diagnostics of Syngas and Methane Combustion in a Cavity Combustor,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 187(11), pp. 1661–1682. [CrossRef]
Stopper, U. , Meier, W. , Sadanandan, R. , Stöhr, M. , Aigner, M. , and Bulat, G. , 2013, “Experimental Study of Industrial Gas Turbine Flames Including Quantification of Pressure Influence on Flow Field, Fuel/Air Premixing and Flame Shape,” Combust. Flame, 160(10), pp. 2103–2118. [CrossRef]
British Standard, 1996, “Gas Turbines. Exhaust Gas Emission—Part I: Measurement and Evaluation,” British Standards Institution, London, Standard No. ISO 11042-1:1996. https://www.iso.org/standard/19022.html
Herning, F. , and Zipperer, L. , 1936, “Calculation of the Viscosity of Technical Gas Mixtures From the Viscosity of the Individual Gases,” Gas Wasserfach, 79, p. 49.
Thermodynamics Research Center, 2016, “NIST Chemistry Web-Book,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, accessed Oct. 10, 2016, http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/
Kee, R. J. , Rupley, F. M. , Miller, J. A. , Coltrin, M. E. , Grcar, J. F. , Meeks, E. , Moffat, H. K. , Lutz, A. E. , Dixon-Lewis, G. , Smooke, M. D. , Warnatz, J. , Evans, G. H. , Larson, R. S. , Mitchell, R. E. , Petzold, L. R. , Reynolds, W. C. , Caracotsios, M. , Stewart, W. E. , Glarborg, P. , Wang, C. , Adigun, O. , Houf, W. G. , Chou, C. P. , Miller, S. F. , Ho, P. , and Young, D. J. , 2013, “CHEMKIN-PRO 15131,” Reaction Design, San Diego, CA.
Kee, R. J. , Rupley, F. M. , Miller, J. A. , Coltrin, M. E. , Grcar, J. F. , Meeks, E. , Moffat, H. K. , Lutz, A. E. , Dixon-Lewis, G. , Smooke, M. D. , Warnatz, J. , Evans, G. H. , Larson, R. S. , Mitchell, R. E. , Petzold, L. R. , Reynolds, W. C. , Caracotsios, M. , Stewart, W. E. , Glarborg, P. , Wang, C. , and Adigun, O. , 2000, “CHEMKIN Collection Release 3.6,” Reaction Design, San Diego, CA.
Davis, S. G. , Joshi, A. V. , Wang, H. , and Egolfopoulos, F. , 2005, “An Optimized Kinetic Model of H2/CO Combustion,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 30(1), pp. 1283–1292. [CrossRef]
Niemann, U. , Seshadri, K. , and Williams, F. , 2013, “Effect of Pressure on Structure and Extinction of Near-Limit Hydrogen Counterflow Diffusion Flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 34(1), pp. 881–886. [CrossRef]
Law, C. K. , 2006, Combustion Physics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. [CrossRef]
Flohr, P. , and Pitsch, H. , 2000, “A Turbulent Flame Speed Closure Model for LES of Industrial Burner Flows,” Center for Turbulence Research Summer Program, July 4--15, pp. 169–179. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=
Bowman, C. , Frenklach, M. , Gardiner, W. , and Smith, G. , 1999, “The ‘GRIMech 3.0’ Chemical Kinetic Mechanism,” University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, accessed June 9, 2015, http://www.me.berkeley.edu/gri_mech/
Hu, E. , Li, X. , Meng, X. , Chen, Y. , Cheng, Y. , Xie, Y. , and Huang, Z. , 2015, “Laminar Flame Speeds and Ignition Delay Times of Methane–Air Mixtures at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures,” Fuel, 158, pp. 1–10. [CrossRef]
Carlsson, H. , Nordström, E. , Bohlin, A. , Wu, Y. , Zhou, B. , Li, Z. , Aldén, M. , Bengtsson, P. , and Bai, X. , 2015, “Numerical and Experimental Study of Flame Propagation and Quenching of Lean Premixed Turbulent Low Swirl Flames at Different Reynolds Numbers,” Combust. Flame, 162(6), pp. 2582–2591. [CrossRef]
Han, Z. , and Hochgreb, S. , 2015, “The Response of Stratified Swirling Flames to Acoustic Forcing: Experiments and Comparison to Model,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 35(3), pp. 3309–3315. [CrossRef]
Kobayashi, H. , Yata, S. , Ichikawa, Y. , and Ogami, Y. , 2009, “Dilution Effects of Superheated Water Vapor on Turbulent Premixed Flames at High Pressure and High Temperature,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(2), pp. 2607–2614. [CrossRef]
Amato, A. , Hudak, B. , D'Souza, P. , D'Carlo, P. , Noble, D. , Scarborough, D. , Seitzman, J. , and Lieuwen, T. , 2011, “Measurements and Analysis of CO and O2 Emissions in CH4/CO2/O2 Flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33(2), pp. 3399–3405. [CrossRef]
Furuhata, T. , Kawata, T. , Mizukoshi, N. , and Arai, M. , 2010, “Effect of Steam Addition Pathways on NO Reduction Characteristics in a Can-Type Spray Combustor,” Fuel, 89(10), pp. 3119–3126. [CrossRef]
Biagioli, F. , and Güthe, F. , 2007, “Effect of Pressure and Fuel–Air Unmixedness on NOx Emissions From Industrial Gas Turbine Burners,” Combust. Flame, 151(1–2), pp. 274–288. [CrossRef]
Zhao, D. , Yamashita, H. , Kitagawa, K. , Arai, N. , and Furuhata, T. , 2002, “Behavior and Effect on NOx Formation of OH Radical in Methane-Air Diffusion Flame With Steam Addition,” Combust. Flame, 130(4), pp. 352–360. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Swirl burner assembly schematic (1) and pressure casing with optical access (2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Raw chemiluminescence image of an axisymmetric sample flame (a) and the equivalent Abel deconvoluted image (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Modeled changes in; AFT (a) maximum HRR (b) uL (c) and KExt (d) for each stable operating condition. Experimental points are identified as markers.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

One-dimensional OH spatial concentration profiles for P1 and P3 and two equivalent H2O loadings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Average OH* chemiluminescence images for converter gas and CH4 flames (a), and equivalent Abel transformed images (b), at Ø = 0.65 with increasing levels of H2O addition (Re × 103)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Average mirrored OH PLIF intensities for Ø = 0.65 with increasing levels of H2O addition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Average OH* chemiluminescence (global (a), Abel (b)) with equivalent H2O addition for P1,P2, and P3 (Re × 103)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Change in axial flame centroid location against modeled uL (hollow) and maximum HRR (shaded)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Mirrored average OH PLIF intensities for P1,P2, and P3 with equivalent levels of H2O addition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Change in LBO equivalence ratio for all experimental configurations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Change in normalized CO (a) and NOx (b) concentrations for Ø = 0.65 across all conditions



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In