Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Heat Transfer in the Core Compressor Under Ice Crystal Icing Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexander Bucknell

Department of Engineering Science,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK
e-mail: alexander.bucknell@eng.ox.ac.uk

Matthew McGilvray, David R. H. Gillespie

Department of Engineering Science,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK

Geoff Jones, Alasdair Reed

Rolls-Royce Plc,
Derby DE24 8BJ, UK

David R. Buttsworth

School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering,
University of Southern Queensland,
Toowoomba QLD 4350, Australia

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 22, 2017; final manuscript received September 13, 2017; published online April 10, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(7), 071501 (Apr 10, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1386; doi: 10.1115/1.4038460 History: Received July 22, 2017; Revised September 13, 2017

It has been recognized in recent years that high altitude atmospheric ice crystals pose a threat to aircraft engines. Instances of damage, surge, and shutdown have been recorded at altitudes significantly greater than those associated with supercooled water icing. It is believed that solid ice particles can accrete inside the core compressor, although the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. Development of analytical and empirical models of the ice crystal icing phenomenon is necessary for both future engine design and this-generation engine certification. A comprehensive model will require the integration of a number of aerodynamic, thermodynamic, and mechanical components. This paper studies one such component, specifically the thermodynamic and mechanical processes experienced by ice particles impinging on a warm surface. Results are presented from an experimental campaign using a heated and instrumented flat plate. The plate was installed in the Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel (AIWT) at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). This facility is capable of replicating ice crystal conditions at altitudes up to 9 km and Mach numbers up to 0.55. The heated plate is designed to measure the heat flux from a surface at temperatures representative of the early core compressor, under varying convective and icing heat loads. Heat transfer enhancement was observed to rise approximately linearly with both total water content (TWC) and particle diameter over the ranges tested. A Stokes number greater than unity proved to be a useful parameter in determining whether heat transfer enhancement would occur. A particle energy parameter was used to estimate the likelihood of fragmentation. Results showed that when particles were both ballistic and likely to fragment, heat transfer enhancement was independent of both Mach and Reynolds numbers over the ranges tested.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of two shaft turbofan, with potential ice accretion sites highlighted [1]

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Fig. 2

Ice crystal sticking efficiency versus melt ratio, with a plateau at 10–17% [4]

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel [7]

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Fig. 4

Test article during stages of assembly. The substrate leading edge is on the right in (a) and (b); flow is left to right in (e): (a) Copper flat plate substrate, (b) underside of copper substrate, (c) installation of thermocouples in the sidewalls and heater cartridges in the underside, (d) installation of Kapton layer with integrated thin film heat flux gauges on top surface, and (e) addition of Ti90-Al6-V4 layer, and mounting hardware.

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Fig. 5

Schematic of test article (not to scale)

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Fig. 6

Spatial and temporal uniformity of substrate temperature (measured 2.5 mm below the copper top surface) for dry and maximum ice concentration runs

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Fig. 7

RH (%) profile pre- and during run, with the data capture window highlighted

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Fig. 8

Total wet bulb temperature profile pre- and during run

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Fig. 9

Flowchart of experimental procedure and postprocessing

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Fig. 10

Nusselt number against local Reynolds number according to Eq. (12), with a theoretical flat plate solution

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Fig. 11

Computational domain: (a) simplified solid model used in computation, (b) mesh refinement at the leading edge, and (c) two-dimensional slice of computational domain at midspan

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Fig. 12

Sensitivity analysis on particle collection efficiency for varying computational setup

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Fig. 13

Validation of measured Stanton number for all streamwise positions

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Fig. 14

Validation of measured Stanton number for all angles of attack

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Fig. 15

Velocity contours at midspan for the 10 deg angle of attack case, baseline flow condition. Flow is left to right

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Fig. 16

Profile of total water content over the central tunnel area [7], with the TFG locations overlaid as black circles. 33, 66, and 100% streamwise position gauges are highlighted

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Fig. 17

Particle traces for (a) 10 μm particles and (b) 40 μm particles, injected in line with the port row of TFGs. Tracks are colored by particle velocity in the Z (vertical) direction. Baseline aerodynamic condition; flow is into the page.

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Fig. 18

Total water content impinging on the plate as a fraction of TWC injected, against streamwise location. Baseline aerodynamic condition and TWC = 0.5 g/m3 unless otherwise stated

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Fig. 23

Stanton number enhancement against particle diameter (MMD), baseline aerodynamic condition

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Fig. 22

PIV image, showing a splashing event. MMD = 60 μm, TWC = 2.0 g/m3

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Fig. 21

PIV image, showing a shattering event. MMD = 60 μm, TWC = 0.5 g/m3

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Fig. 20

Wall temperature versus total water content. Schematic of test piece inset

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Fig. 19

Stanton number enhancement against total water content, baseline aerodynamic condition

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Fig. 24

Stanton number enhancement against Mach number, TWC = 1.0 g/m3

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Fig. 25

Stanton number enhancement against dynamic pressure, TWC = 1.0 g/m3

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Fig. 26

Stanton number enhancement against angle of attack, TWC = 1.0 g/m3



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