Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Installed Performance Assessment of an Array of Distributed Propulsors Ingesting Boundary Layer Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Chana Goldberg

Hybrid Electric Propulsion Group,
Propulsion Engineering Centre,
Cranfield University,
Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
e-mail: c.goldberg@cranfield.ac.uk

Devaiah Nalianda, Panagiotis Laskaridis

Hybrid Electric Propulsion Group,
Propulsion Engineering Centre,
Cranfield University,
Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK

Pericles Pilidis

Propulsion Engineering Centre,
Cranfield University,
Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Aircraft Engine Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received October 30, 2017; final manuscript received November 7, 2017; published online April 24, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(7), 071203 (Apr 24, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1588; doi: 10.1115/1.4038837 History: Received October 30, 2017; Revised November 07, 2017

Conventional propulsion systems are typically represented as uninstalled systems to suit the simple separation between airframe and engine in a podded configuration. However, boundary layer ingesting systems are inherently integrated, and require a different perspective for performance analysis. Simulations of boundary layer ingesting propulsions systems must represent the change in inlet flow characteristics, which result from different local flow conditions. In addition, a suitable accounting system is required to split the airframe forces from the propulsion system forces. The research assesses the performance of a conceptual vehicle, which applies a boundary layer ingesting propulsion system—NASA's N3-X blended wing body aircraft—as a case study. The performance of the aircraft's distributed propulsor array is assessed using a performance method, which accounts for installation terms resulting from the boundary layer ingesting nature of the system. A “thrust split” option is considered, which splits the source of thrust between the aircraft's main turbojet engines and the distributed propulsor array. An optimum thrust split (TS) for a specific fuel consumption at design point (DP) is found to occur for a TS value of 94.1%. In comparison, the optimum TS with respect to fuel consumption for the design 7500 nmi mission is found to be 93.6%, leading to a 1.5% fuel saving for the configuration considered.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Air Transport Action Group, 2013, “The Right Flightpath to Reduce Aviation Emissions,” UNFCCC Climate Talks, pp. 2–7. http://www.atag.org/component/attachments/attachments.html?id=72
Royal Aeronautical Society, 2015, “Greener by Design: Annual Report 2014–2015,” Royal Aeronautical Society, London, Report. https://www.aerosociety.com/Assets/Docs/GreenerByDesign/Annual_Report/Annual_Report_2014-15.pdf
Hall, C. A. , and Crichton, D. , 2005, “Engine and Installation Configurations for a Silent Aircraft,” 17th International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines (ISABE), Munich, Germany, Sept. 4–9, Paper No. ISABE-2005-1164. http://silentaircraft.org/object/download/1928/doc/ISABE_2005_1164.pdf
Ko, A. , Leifsson, L. T. , Schetz, J. , Mason, W. , Grossman, B. , and Haftka, R. T. , 2003, “MDO of a Blended-Wing-Body Transport Aircraft With Distributed Propulsion,” AIAA Paper No. 2003-6732.
Gohardani, A. S. , Doulgeris, G. , and Singh, R. , 2011, “Challenges of Future Aircraft Propulsion: A Review of Distributed Propulsion Technology and Its Potential Application for the All Electric Commercial Aircraft,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci., 47(5), pp. 369–391. [CrossRef]
Smith, A. M. O. , and Roberts, H. E. , 1947, “The Jet Airplane Utilizing Boundary Layer Air for Propulsion,” J. Aeronaut. Sci., 14(2), pp. 97–109. [CrossRef]
Plas, A. P. , Sargeant, M. A. , Madani, V. , Crichton, D. , Greitzer, E. M. , Hynes, T. P. , and Hall, C. A. , 2007, “Performance of a Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) Propulsion System,” AIAA Paper No. 2007-450.
Felder, J. , and Kim, H. D. , 2011, “Control Volume Analysis of Boundary Layer Ingesting Propulsion Systems With or Without Shock Wave Ahead of the Inlet,” AIAA Paper No. 2011-222.
Valencia, E. A. , Nalianda, D. , Laskaridis, P. , and Singh, R. , 2015, “Methodology to Assess the Performance of an Aircraft Concept With Distributed Propulsion and Boundary Layer Ingestion Using a Parametric Approach,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part G, 229(4), pp. 682–693. [CrossRef]
Drela, M. , 2009, “Power Balance in Aerodynamic Flows,” AIAA J., 47(7), pp. 1761–1771. [CrossRef]
Arntz, A. , Atinault, O. , and Merlen, A. , 2014, “Exergy-Based Formulation for Aircraft Aeropropulsive Performance Assessment: Theoretical Development,” AIAA J., 53(6), pp. 1627–1639. [CrossRef]
Felder, J. L. , Kim, H. D. , and Brown, G. V. , 2009, “Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft,” AIAA Paper No. 2009-1132.
Goldberg, C. , Nalianda, D. , MacManus, D. , Pilidis, P. , and Felder, J. , 2016, “Installed Performance Assessment of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Distributed Propulsion System at Design Point,” AIAA Paper No. 2016-4800.
Goldberg, C. , Nalianda, D. , Laskaridis, P. , and Pilidis, P. , 2017, “Performance Assessment of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Distributed Propulsion System at Off-Design,” AIAA Paper No. 2017-5055.
Felder, J. , Brown, G. , Kim, H. , and Chu, J. , 2011, “Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion in a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft,” 20th International Society for Airbreathing Engines (ISABE), Gothenburg, Sweden, Sept. 12–16, Paper No. ISABE-2011-1340. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120000856
AGARD, 1979, “Guide to In-Flight Thrust Measurement of Turbojets and Fan Engines,” Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, Report No. AGARD-AG-237 http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a065939.pdf.
Hardin, L. W. , Tillman, G. , Sharma, O. P. , Berton, J. , and Arend, D. J. , 2012, “Aircraft System Study of Boundary Layer Ingesting Propulsion,” AIAA Paper No. 2012–3993.
Stratford, B. S. , and Beavers, G. S. , 1961, “The Calculation of the Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layer in an Arbitrary Pressure Gradient: A Correlation of Certain Previous Methods,” Aeronautical Research Council, London, Technical Report No. ARC-3207. http://naca.central.cranfield.ac.uk/reports/arc/rm/3207.pdf
Schlichting, H. , 1949, “Boundary Layer Theory—Part 2: Turbulent Flows,” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. NACA-TM-1218. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050040758
Schlichting, H. , and Gersten, K. , 2000, Boundary-Layer Theory, Springer, Berlin. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [PubMed]
Felder, J. L. , Kim, H. D. , and Brown, G. V. , 2011, “An Examination of the Effect of Boundary Layer Ingestion on Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Systems,” AIAA Paper No. 2011-300.
Lolis, P. , 2014, “Development of a Preliminary Weight Estimation Method for Advanced Turbofan Engines,” Ph.D. thesis, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK. https://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/handle/1826/9244
Brown, G. V. , 2011, “Weights and Efficiencies of Electric Components of a Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion System,” AIAA Paper No. 2011-225.
Moore, M. , 2012, “NASA N3-X Concept Model,” OpenVSP/NASA, Washington, DC, accessed July 21, 2014, http://hangar.openvsp.org/vspfiles/59
Babikian, R. , Lukachko, S. P. , and Waitz, I. A. , 2002, “The Historical Fuel Efficiency Characteristics of Regional Aircraft From Technological, Operational, and Cost Perspectives,” J. Air Transp. Manage., 8(6), pp. 389–400. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sketch of NASA's N3-X aircraft

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Assumed Mach number distribution over the N3-X airframe [15]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Station definition for a BLI propulsion system [13]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Simulation method for the off-design performance of a BLI propulsion system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Inlet flow characteristics validation (model —, Ref. [15] - - -)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Propulsor inlet height validation (model △, Ref. [21] ×)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Map of N3-X propulsion system NPF (DP power setting)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Influence of TS on SFC at DP (—) and RTO (- - -)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Influence of TS and transmission efficiency on SFC at DP, 99.8% (—), 95% (- - -)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Influence of TS on propulsion system weight

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Payload range chart for the baseline N3-X configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Influence of TS on aircraft fuel burn for a 7500 nmi mission



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In