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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

Inverted Brayton Cycle With Exhaust Gas Condensation

[+] Author and Article Information
Ian Kennedy

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK
e-mail: ijk25@bath.ac.uk

Zhihang Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK
e-mail: Z.Chen3@bath.ac.uk

Bob Ceen

Axes Design Ltd.,
Malvern WR14 4JU, UK
e-mail: bobceen@hotmail.co.uk

Simon Jones

HIETA Technologies Ltd.,
Bristol BS16 7FR, UK
e-mail: simonjones@hieta.biz

Colin D. Copeland

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK
e-mail: c.d.copeland@bath.ac.uk

Contributed by the Cycle Innovations Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 20, 2018; final manuscript received March 6, 2018; published online July 31, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(11), 111702 (Jul 31, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1080; doi: 10.1115/1.4039811 History: Received February 20, 2018; Revised March 06, 2018

Approximately 30% of the energy from an internal combustion engine is rejected as heat in the exhaust gases. An inverted Brayton cycle (IBC) is one potential means of recovering some of this energy. When a fuel is burnt, water and CO2 are produced and expelled as part of the exhaust gases. In an IBC, in order to reduce compression work, the exhaust gases are cooled before compression up to ambient pressure. If coolant with a low enough temperature is available, it is possible to condense some of the water out of the exhaust gases, further reducing compressor work. In this study, the condensation of exhaust gas water is studied. The results show that the IBC installed in series on a turbocharged engine can produce an improvement of approximately 5% in brake-specific fuel consumption at the baseline conditions chosen and for a compressor inlet temperature of 310 K. The main factors that influence the work output are heat exchanger pressure drop, turbine expansion ratio, coolant temperature, and turbine inlet temperature. For conditions when condensation is possible, the water content of the exhaust gas has a significant influence on work output. The hydrogen to carbon ratio of the fuel has the most potential to vary the water content and hence the work generated by the system. Finally, a number of uses for the water generated have been presented such as to reduce the additional heat rejection required by the cycle. It can also potentially be used for engine water injection to reduce emissions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Inverted Brayton cycle

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Fig. 2

Inverted Brayton cycle temperature entropy diagram

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Fig. 3

Water saturation pressure variation with temperature

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Fig. 4

Specific heat of exhaust species as a function of temperature

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Fig. 5

Cycle efficiency and compressor specific work as a function of compressor inlet temperature and turbine expansion ratio at fixed turbine inlet pressure (101,325 Pa)

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Fig. 6

Reduction in compressor mass flow rate due to condensation as a function of compressor inlet temperature and turbine expansion ratio

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Fig. 7

Cycle efficiency and compressor specific work as a function of compressor inlet temperature and turbine inlet pressure

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Fig. 8

Cycle efficiency and compressor specific work as a function of compressor inlet temperature and heat exchanger pressure drop

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Fig. 9

Cycle efficiency and compressor specific work as a function of compressor inlet temperature and air humidity ratio

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Fig. 10

Variation of cx, tx, and cpx with temperature and water content

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Fig. 11

Cycle efficiency and compressor specific work as a function of compressor inlet temperature and fuel H–C ratio

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Fig. 12

Cycle efficiency as a function of compressor inlet temperature and turbine inlet temperature

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Fig. 13

Cycle efficiency as a function of compressor inlet temperature and turbine isentropic efficiency

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Fig. 14

Cycle efficiency as a function of compressor inlet temperature and compressor isentropic efficiency

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