Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Spray–Wall Interactions in a Small-Bore, Multicylinder Engine Operating With Reactivity-Controlled Compression Ignition

[+] Author and Article Information
Martin L. Wissink

Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Oak Ridge, TN 37831
e-mail: wissinkml@ornl.gov

Scott J. Curran

Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Oak Ridge, TN 37831
e-mail: curransj@ornl.gov

Chaitanya Kavuri

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: nkavuri@wisc.edu

Sage L. Kokjohn

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: kokjohn@wisc.edu

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 28, 2018; final manuscript received March 12, 2018; published online July 30, 2018. Editor: David Wisler. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The U.S. government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the U.S. government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for U.S. government purposes. DOE will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan).

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(9), 092808 (Jul 30, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1104; doi: 10.1115/1.4039817 History: Received February 28, 2018; Revised March 12, 2018

Experimental work on reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) in a small-bore, multicylinder engine operating on premixed iso-octane, and direct-injected n-heptane has shown an unexpected combustion phasing advance at early injection timings, which has not been observed in large-bore engines operating under RCCI at similar conditions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to investigate whether spray–wall interactions could be responsible for this result. Comparison of the spray penetration, fuel film mass, and in-cylinder visualization of the spray from the CFD results to the experimentally measured combustion phasing and emissions provided compelling evidence of strong fuel impingement at injection timings earlier than −90 crank angle degrees (deg CA) after top dead center (aTDC), and transition from partial to full impingement between −65 and −90 deg CA aTDC. Based on this evidence, explanations for the combustion phasing advance at early injection timings are proposed along with potential verification experiments.

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Fig. 3

Computational grid used in the present study

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Fig. 2

Diagram of the multicylinder GM 1.9 L engine

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Fig. 1

Descriptions and definitions of the three bins of fuel stratification for GCI and examples of common fuel injection strategies in relation to the intake stroke, compression stroke, and combustion heat release rate from Dempsey et al. [5]

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Fig. 4

Combustion phasing of experimental HCCI and RCCI cases along with modeled RCCI. Nominal IVC location is indicated by vertical dashed line, and region in which divergence of experimental CA50 begins is indicated by shaded vertical bar.

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Fig. 5

Ensemble-average pressure and heat release traces with standard deviation bands for selected experimental cases. Numbers next to RCCI cases in legend refer to DI SOI in units of deg CA aTDC. All data are taken from cylinder 2.

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Fig. 6

Emissions results of experimental HCCI and RCCI cases. Brake-specific CO and brake-specific HC are shown on the left axis with linear scale, while brake-specific NOx is shown on the right axis with logarithmic scale. Nominal IVC location is indicated by vertical dashed line, and region in which divergence of experimental CA50 begins is indicated by shaded vertical bar.

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Fig. 7

Peak spray penetration and peak mass of DI fuel film predicted by CFD. Region in which divergence of experimental CA50 begins is indicated by shaded vertical bar.

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Fig. 8

In-cylinder visualizations of spray parcels (dots) and equivalence ratio (contour on cut-plane through spray axis) at SOI spanning the RCCI regime and the start of experimental CA50 divergence. Crank angle of each image is representative of the maximum spray penetration for each SOI.

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Fig. 9

Possible mechanisms for abstraction of oil from the wall film: (a) oil drop ejection due to momentum exchange and (b) evaporation of oil along with deposited fuel



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