Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Design of a Wide-Range Centrifugal Compressor Stage for Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles

[+] Author and Article Information
Robert Pelton

Hanwha Power Systems Americas,
Houston, TX 77079
e-mail: rob.pelton@hanwha.com

Sewoong Jung

Hanwha Power Systems Americas,
Houston, TX 77079
e-mail: sewoong.jung@hanwha.com

Tim Allison

Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX 78238
e-mail: tim.allison@swri.org

Natalie Smith

Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX 78238
e-mail: natalie.smith@swri.org

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 10, 2017; final manuscript received March 26, 2018; published online May 24, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(9), 092602 (May 24, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1452; doi: 10.1115/1.4039835 History: Received August 10, 2017; Revised March 26, 2018

Supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles require high compressor efficiency at both the design point and over a wide operating range. Increasing the compressor efficiency and range helps maximize the power output of the cycle and allows operation over a broader range of transient and part-load operating conditions. For sCO2 cycles operating with compressor inlets near the critical point, large variations in fluid properties are possible with small changes in temperature or pressure. This leads to particular challenges for air-cooled cycles where compressor inlet temperature and associated fluid density are subject to daily and seasonal variations as well as transient events. Design and off-design operating requirements for a wide-range compressor impeller are presented where the impeller is implemented on an integrally geared compressor–expander concept for a high temperature sCO2 recompression cycle. In order to satisfy the range and efficiency requirements of the cycle, a novel compressor stage design incorporating a semi-open impeller concept with a passive recirculating casing treatment is presented that mitigates inducer stall and extends the low flow operating range. The stage design also incorporates splitter blades and a vaneless diffuser to maximize efficiency and operating range. These advanced impeller design features are enabled through the use of direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) manufacturing. The resulting design increases the range from 45% to 73% relative to a conventional closed impeller design while maintaining high design point efficiency.

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Fig. 1

Optimal main compressor operating points: (a) stage 1 and (b) stage 2

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Fig. 2

Compressor inlet gas density sensitivity to changes in temperature

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Fig. 3

Two-dimensional cross section and 3D model of the baseline compressor design

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Fig. 4

Streamlines with relative Mach number contours in the baseline compressor model for the lowest stable flow solution

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Fig. 5

CFD assessment of range extension techniques

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Fig. 6

Basic semishrouded casing treatment configuration

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Fig. 7

Solid model of the partially shrouded compressor

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Fig. 8

Streamlines in the main compressor operating at the baseline stall flow with casing treatment compared to without (inset)

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Fig. 9

CFD predicted performance map of the first-stage main compressor



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