Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

High-Performance Computing and Analysis-Led Development of High Efficiency Dilute Opposed Piston Gasoline Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Siddhartha Banerjee

Pinnacle Engines, Inc.,
San Carlos, CA 94070
e-mail: sidbannet@gmail.com

Clayton Naber

Pinnacle Engines, Inc.,
San Carlos, CA 94070
e-mail: clayton@pinnacle-engines.com

Michael Willcox

Pinnacle Engines, Inc.,
San Carlos, CA 94070
e-mail: tony@pinnacle-engines.com

Charles E. A. Finney

Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
e-mail: finneyc@ornl.gov

Dean K. Edwards

Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
e-mail: edwardskd@ornl.gov

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 20, 2018; final manuscript received March 26, 2018; published online June 19, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(10), 102803 (Jun 19, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1086; doi: 10.1115/1.4039845 History: Received February 20, 2018; Revised March 26, 2018

Pinnacle is developing a multicylinder 1.2 L gasoline engine for automotive applications using high-performance computing (HPC) and analysis methods. Pinnacle and Oak Ridge National Laboratory executed large-scale multidimensional combustion analyses at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility to thoroughly explore the design space. These HPC-led investigations show high fuel efficiency (∼46% gross indicated efficiency) may be achieved by operating with extremely high charge dilution levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at a light load key drive cycle condition (2000 RPM, 3 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP)), while simultaneously attaining high levels of fuel conversion efficiency and low NOx emissions. In this extremely dilute environment, the flame propagation event is supported by turbulence and bulk in-cylinder charge motion brought about by modulation of inlet port flow. This arrangement produces a load and speed adjustable amalgamation of swirl and counter-rotating tumble which provides the turbulence required to support stable low-temperature combustion. At higher load conditions, the engine may operate at more traditional combustion modes to generate competitive power. In this paper, the numerical results from these HPC simulations are presented. Further HPC simulations and test validations are underway and will be reported in future publications.

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Fig. 1

Computer-aided design model of Pinnacle Engine's 1.2 L opposed-piston gasoline engine

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Fig. 2

Presence of counter-rotating dual tumble in Pinnacle's 1.2 L engine. Streamline of in-cylinder charge motion at intake valve close.

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Fig. 3

In-cylinder velocity vector from the charge intake in the plane perpendicular to the piston motion

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Fig. 4

Valve lift profiles with the VVT system of Pinnacle's 1.2 L Engine

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Fig. 5

Schematic of Pinnacle's opposed piston, four-stroke dilute gasoline engine

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Fig. 6

Schematic of Pinnacle's analysis-led process for combustion design

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Fig. 7

Design and control optimization using model-based prediction

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Fig. 8

Apparent heat release rate with spark timing and EGR level sweeps

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Fig. 9

Inlet port designs for 1.2 L engine: (a) asymmetric inlet port legs and (b) symmetric inlet port legs

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Fig. 10

In-cylinder flow field. Comparison between inlet port design and secondary throttle operation.

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Fig. 11

Tradeoff between in-cylinder turbulence and swirl—a comparison between two inlet port designs

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Fig. 12

Intake flow coefficient against valve lift

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Fig. 13

Distribution of internal EGR inside the combustion chamber at CA50 (left: swumble, right: tumble)

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Fig. 14

View of flame propagation in swumble (a) and tumble (b) configuration

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Fig. 15

Piston crown for 1.2 L engine with maximum CR of 18:1

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Fig. 16

Gross-indicated efficiency map overlaid with regions of unstable combustion (gray) and knock (black) with piston SIM0336 in tumble (a) and swumble (b) configurations

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Fig. 17

Gross-indicated efficiency map overlaid with regions of unstable combustion (gray) and knock (black) with piston SIM0335 in tumble (a) and swumble (b) configurations

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Fig. 18

Gross-indicated efficiency map overlaid with regions of unstable combustion (gray) and knock (black) with fixed dilution (42% EGR) with piston SIM0336

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Fig. 19

Fuel specific NOx map in tumble (a) and swumble (b) configurations with piston SIM0336

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Fig. 20

Fuel specific HC map in tumble (a) and swumble (b) configurations with piston SIM0336

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Fig. 21

Fuel specific NOx (a) and HC (b) maps with fixed dilution (42% EGR) with piston SIM0336

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Fig. 22

Gross-indicated efficiency map with VCR at fixed dilution (42% EGR) and with piston SIM0336

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Fig. 23

Maximum GIE against CR with fixed EGR and swirl number while maintaining emission, knock, and combustion stability margins

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Fig. 24

Apparent heat release rate from simulation (solid line) and test (dotted black): (a) with original chemical kinetics mechanism and (b) from newly developed chemical kinetics mechanism and validation of the simulation model



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