Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Influence of the Spatial and Temporal Interaction Between Diesel Pilot and Directly Injected Natural Gas Jet on Ignition and Combustion Characteristics

[+] Author and Article Information
Georg Fink

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany
e-mail: fink@td.mw.tum.de

Michael Jud

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany,
e-mail: jud@td.mw.tum.de

Thomas Sattelmayer

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany,
e-mail: sattelmayer@td.mw.tum.de

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 27, 2018; final manuscript received March 26, 2018; published online July 10, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(10), 102811 (Jul 10, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1096; doi: 10.1115/1.4039934 History: Received February 27, 2018; Revised March 26, 2018

In this paper, pilot-ignited high pressure dual-fuel combustion of a natural gas jet is investigated on a fundamental basis by applying two separate single-hole injectors to a rapid compression expansion machine (RCEM). A Shadowgraphy system is used for optical observations, and the combustion progress is assessed in terms of heat release rates (HRRs). The experiments focus on the combined influence of injection timing and geometrical jet arrangement on the jet interaction and the impact on the combustion process. In a first step, the operational range for successful pilot self-ignition and transition to natural gas jet combustion is determined, and the restricting phenomena are identified by analyzing the shadowgraph images. Within this range, the combustion process is assessed by evaluation of ignition delays and HRRs. Strong interaction is found to delay or even prohibit pilot ignition, while it facilitates a fast and stable onset of the gas jet combustion. Furthermore, it is shown that the HRR is governed by the time of ignition with respect to the start of natural gas injection—as this parameter defines the level of premixing. Evaluation of the time of gas jet ignition within the operability map can therefore directly link a certain spatial and temporal interaction to the resulting heat release characteristics. It is finally shown that controlling the HRR through injection timing variation is limited for a certain angle between the two jets.

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Fig. 1

Test rig with optical setup and injection arrangement: (1) driving air supply, (2) driving piston, (3) hydraulic oil, (4) flow orifice, (5) working piston, (6) bypass valve, (7) combustion chamber, (8) natural gas injector, (9) diesel pilot injector, (10) arc lamp, (11) pinhole, (12) beam splitter, (13) surface mirror, (14) parabolic mirror, (15) collimating lens, and (16) high-speed camera

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Fig. 2

Multizonal model during compression and expansion: (1) adiabatic core, (2) laminar boundary layer, (3) crevices, (4) combustion products, and (5) expanding crevice flow

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Fig. 3

Transient behavior of the compressible laminar boundary layer

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Fig. 4

Transient behavior of the crevice volume under isothermal and constant heat transfer coefficient assumptions

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Fig. 5

Calculated heat losses from an unfired case and modeled heat losses

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Fig. 6

Exemplary result with thresholds and references for ignition delay definition

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Fig. 7

Operational range for spatial (angle between the jets) and temporal (time delay gas injection) interaction

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Fig. 8

Shadowgraph images of jet interaction in false colors, numbers represent the conditions specified in Fig. 7: reducing angle (top), advancing gas injection (middle), and rectangular interaction (bottom)

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Fig. 9

Spatial and temporal dependence of the pilot ignition delay

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Fig. 10

Spatial and temporal dependence of the natural gas ignition delay

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Fig. 11

Characterization of the HRR by the time of gas jet ignition; the colors of the lines and dots correspond to the grouping with respect to the time of ignition and are consistent with Fig. 12

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Fig. 12

Heat release rates averaged by the time of gas jet ignition (left) and their occurrence within the operational range (right)



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