Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Comparison of Experimental and Numerically Predicted Three-Dimensional Wake Behavior of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Joseph Saverin

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Technische Universitt Berlin,
Berlin D-10623, Germany
e-mail: j.saverin@tu-berlin.de

Giacomo Persico, Vincenzo Dossena

Laboratorio di Fluidodinamica delle Macchine,
Dipartimento di Energia,
Politecnico di Milano,
Milan I-20156, Italy

David Marten, David Holst, George Pechlivanoglou, Christian Oliver Paschereit

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Technische Universitt Berlin,
Berlin D-10623, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 8, 2017; final manuscript received November 27, 2017; published online August 6, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(12), 122601 (Aug 06, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1608; doi: 10.1115/1.4039935 History: Received November 08, 2017; Revised November 27, 2017

The evolution of the wake of a wind turbine contributes significantly to its operation and performance, as well as to those of machines installed in the vicinity. The inherent unsteady and three-dimensional (3D) aerodynamics of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) have hitherto limited the research on wake evolution. In this paper, the wakes of both a troposkien and a H-type VAWT rotor are investigated by comparing experiments and calculations. Experiments were carried out in the large-scale wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano, where unsteady velocity measurements in the wake were performed by means of hot wire anemometry. The geometry of the rotors was reconstructed in the open-source wind-turbine software QBlade, developed at the TU Berlin. The aerodynamic model makes use of a lifting line free-vortex wake (LLFVW) formulation, including an adapted Beddoes-Leishman unsteady aerodynamic model; airfoil polars are introduced to assign sectional lift and drag coefficients. A wake sensitivity analysis was carried out to maximize the reliability of wake predictions. The calculations are shown to reproduce several wake features observed in the experiments, including blade-tip vortex, dominant and minor vortical structures, and periodic unsteadiness caused by sectional dynamic stall. The experimental assessment of the simulations illustrates that the LLFVW model is capable of predicting the unsteady wake development with very limited computational cost, thus making the model ideal for the design and optimization of VAWTs.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Wakes , Blades , Rotors , Vortices , Turbines
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Paulsen, U. , Madsen, H. , Enevoldsen, K. , Nielsen, P. , Hattel, J. , Zanne, L. , Battisti, L. , Brighenti, A. , Lacaze, M. , Lim, V. , Heinen, H. , Berthelsen, P. , Carstensen, S. , de Ridder, E. , van Bussel, G. , and Tescione, G. , 2011, “DeepWind—An Innovative Wind Turbine Concept for Offshore,” EWEA 2011 Conference, Brussels, Belgium, Mar. 14–17, pp. 1–9.
Mertens, S. , vanKuik, G. , and van Bussel, G. , 2003, “Performance of an H-Darrieus in the Skewed Flow on a Roof,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 125(4), pp. 433–440. [CrossRef]
Balduzzi, A. , Bianchini, A. , Carnevale, E. A. , Ferrari, L. , and Magnani, S. , 2012, “Feasibility Analysis of a Darrieus Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Installation in the Rooftop of a Building,” Appl. Energy, 97, pp. 921–929. [CrossRef]
Blackwell, B. F. , Sheldahl, R. E. , and Feltz, L. V. , 1976, “Wind Tunnel Performance Data for the Darrieus Wind Turbine With NACA 0012 Blades,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Technical Report No. SAND76-0130. http://windpower.sandia.gov/abstracts/760130A.pdf
Sheldahl, R. E. , 1981, “Comparison Field Wind Tunnel Darrieus Wind Turbine Data,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Technical Report No. SAND80-2469. http://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-control.cgi/1980/802469.pdf
Battisti, L. , Benini, E. , Brighenti, A. , Castelli, M. R. , Dell'Anna, S. , Dossena, V. , Persico, G. , Paulsen, U. S. , and Pedersen, T. , 2016, “Wind Tunnel Testing of the DeepWind Demonstrator in Design and Tilted Operating Conditions,” Energy, 111, pp. 484–497. [CrossRef]
Persico, G. , Dossena, V. , Paradiso, B. , Battisti, L. , Brighenti, A. , and Benini, E. , 2017, “Time-Resolved Experimental Characterization of the Wakes Shed by H-Shaped and Troposkien Vertical Axis Wind Turbines,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(3), p. 031203. [CrossRef]
Paraschivoiu, I. , 2002, Wind Turbine Design: With Emphasis on Darrieus Concept, Polytechnic International Press, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Shamsoddin, S. , and Porté-Agel, F. , 2014, “Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes,” Energies, 7(2), pp. 890–912. [CrossRef]
Bassi, F. , Ghidoni, A. , Perbellini, A. , Rebay, S. , Crivellini, A. , Franchina, N. , and Savini, M. , 2014, “A High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Solver for the Incompressible RANS and Turbulence Model Equations,” Comput. Fluids, 98, pp. 54–68. [CrossRef]
Balduzzi, A. , Bianchini, A. , Gigante, F. A. , Ferrara, G. , Campobasso, M. S. , and Ferrari, L. , 2015, “Parametric and Comparative Assessment of Navier-Stokes CFD Methodologies for Darrieus Wind Turbine Performance Analysis,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42663.
Castelli, M. R. , Masi, M. , Battisti, L. , Benini, E. , Brighenti, A. , Dossena, V. , and Persico, G. , 2016, “Reliability of Numerical Wind Tunnels for VAWT Simulation,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 753(8), p. 082025. [CrossRef]
Bianchini, A. , Balduzzi, A. , Ferrari, L. , Ferrara, G. , Persico, G. , Dossena, V. , and Battisti, L. , 2017, “A Combined Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Wake Structure and Performance of a H-Shaped Darrieus Wind Turbine,” Global Power and Propulsion Forum 2017, Zurich, Switzerland, Jan. 16–18, Paper No. GPPF-2017-51.
Grasso, F. , van Garrel, A. , and Schepers, J. , 2011, “Development and Validation of Generalized Lifting Line Based Code for Wind Turbine Aerodynamics,” AIAA Paper No. 2011-146.
Dossena, V. , Persico, G. , Paradiso, B. , Battisti, L. , Dell'Anna, S. , Benini, E. , and Brighenti, A. , 2015, “An Experimental Study of the Aerodynamics and Performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine in Confined and Unconfined Environment,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 137(5), p. 051207. [CrossRef]
Katz, J. , and Plotkin, A. , 1991, Low Speed Aerodynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
van Garrel, A. , 2003, Development of a Wind Turbine Aerodynamics Simulation Module, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten, The Netherlands.
Drela, M. , and Youngren, H. , 2018, “Xfoil: Subsonic Airfoil Development System,” accessed June 7, 2018, http://web.mit.edu/drela/Public/web/xfoil/
Bhagwat, M. J. , and Leishman, G. J. , 2001, “Stability, Consistency and Convergence of Time-Marching Free-Vortex Rotor Wake Algorithms,” J. Am. Helicopter Soc., 46(1), pp. 59–71. [CrossRef]
Viterna, L. , and Janetzke, D. , 1981, “Theoretical and Experimental Power From Large Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Report No. TM-82944.
Montgomerie, B. , 2004, “Methods for Root Effects, Tip Effects and Extending the Angle of Attack Range to ±180 deg, With Application to Aerodynamics for Blades on Wind Turbines and Propellers,” FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden, Report No. FOI-R-1305-SE.
Leishman, J. G. , and Beddoes, T. S. , 1989, “A Semi-Empirical Model for Dynamic Stall,” J. Am. Helicopter Soc., 34(3), pp. 3–17. [CrossRef]
Wendler, J. , Marten, D. , Pechlivanoglou, G. , Nayeri, C. , and Paschereit, C. , 2016, “An Unsteady Aerodynamics Model for Lifting Line Free Vortex Wake Simulations of HAWT and VAWT in Qblade,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57184.
Marten, D. , 2015, “Implementation, Optimization and Validation of a Nonlinear Lifting Line Free Vortex Wake Module Within the Wind Turbine Simulation Code Qblade,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43265.
Ferreira, C. S. , 2009, “The Near Wake of the VAWT,” Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands. https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid%3Aff6eaf63-ac57-492e-a680-c7a50cf5c1cf
Sant, T. , 2007, “Improving BEM-Based Aerodynamic Models in Wind Turbine Design Codes,” Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands. https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid%3A4d0e894c-d0ad-4983-9fa3-505a8c6869f1


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

H-type (left) and troposkien (right) rotors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Location of experimental measurement planes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Blade AOA for the H-type rotor for increasing TSR values. The blade experiences rapid changes in AOA, necessitating the unsteady aerodynamics model.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Wake vortex street caused by oscillating shed circulation near root region. Oscillating wake regions are indicated.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Troposkien: Iper. Left: experimental, right: QBlade. TSR upper 2.4, center 3.1, lower 3.9.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

H-type: Iper. Left: experimental, right: QBlade. TSR upper 1.5, center 2.5, lower 3.5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Troposkien: U¯. Left: experimental, right: QBlade. TSR upper 2.4, center 3.1, lower 3.9. Note the different scales.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

H-type: U¯. Left: experimental, right: QBlade. TSR upper 1.5, center 2.5, lower 3.5. Note the different scales.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In