Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Experimental Study of Ion Current Signals and Characteristics in an Internal Combustion Rankine Cycle Engine Based on Water Injection

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhe Kang

School of Automotive Studies,
Tongji University,
Shanghai 201804, China
e-mail: 180kangzhe@tongji.edu.cn

Zhijun Wu

School of Automotive Studies,
Tongji University,
Shanghai 201804, China
e-mail: zjwu@tongji.edu.cn

Lezhong Fu

School of Automotive Studies,
Tongji University,
Shanghai 201804, China
e-mail: flz19880926@sina.com

Jun Deng

School of Automotive Studies,
Tongji University,
Shanghai 201804, China
e-mail: eagledeng@tongji.edu.cn

Zongjie Hu

School of Automotive Studies,
Tongji University,
Shanghai 201804, China
e-mail: zongjie-hu@tongji.edu.cn

Liguang Li

School of Automotive Studies,
Chinesish-Deutsches Hochschulkolleg,
Tongji University,
Shanghai 201804, China
e-mail: liguang@tongji.edu.cn

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received December 1, 2016; final manuscript received May 8, 2018; published online October 26, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Jeffrey Naber.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(11), 111506 (Oct 26, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1557; doi: 10.1115/1.4040288 History: Received December 01, 2016; Revised May 08, 2018

The internal combustion Rankine cycle (ICRC) engine utilizes pure oxygen as the oxidant instead of air during combustion to prevent the generation of nitrogen oxide emissions and lower the cost of CO2 recovery. To control combustion intensity and increase efficiency, water injection technology is implemented as it can increase the in-cylinder working fluid during combustion process. To further enhance the system thermal efficiency, the injected water is heated using coolant and waste heat before being directly injected into combustion chamber. The main challenge of controlling the ICRC engine is the interaction between water injection process and combustion stability. Ion current detection provides a potential solution of real-time detection of in-cylinder combustion status and water injection process simultaneously. In this paper, the characteristics of ion current signal in an ICRC engine were studied. The results indicate the ion current signal is primarily affected by the combination of trapped water vapor injected in the last cycle and in-cylinder combustion intensity. The water vapor contributes to the ionization reactions, which lead to enhanced ion current signals under water cycle. The ion current signal is capable of reflecting the operating conditions of the in-cylinder water injector. The phase of the ion current peak value has a linear relation as the water injection timing is delayed, and ion current detection technology has the potential to detect the combustion phase under different engine loads in an internal combustion Rankine cycle engine.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of CES system [8]

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Fig. 2

Schematic of ICRC system [15]

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Fig. 3

Simplified ideal ICRC P-V diagram [15]

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of ICRC test bench and combustion chamber layout: 1. engine; 2. pressure transducer; 3. spark plug; 4. water injector; 5. emission analyzer; 6. lambda sensor; 7.thermocoule; 8. throttle; 9. flowmeter; 10. fuel injector; 11. pressure reduction valve; 12. pressure gauge; 13. heater; 14. throttle valve; 15. flowmeter; 16. ball valve; 17. air-fluid booster; 18. water rail; 19. temperature indicator; and 20. charge amplifier.

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Fig. 5

Detailed schematic diagram of the water rail

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Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of in-cylinder water spray and spark plug layout

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Fig. 7

Schematic diagram of ion current detection system

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Fig. 8

Illustration of blind zone in resistance-type ion current detection system

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Fig. 9

Definition of combustion and ion current characteristic parameters

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Fig. 10

Correlation between water injection quantity and water injection duration

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Fig. 11

Comparison between water cycle and dry cycle

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Fig. 12

P–V diagram under different water injection strategy

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Fig. 13

Ion current signal during cycle transition (dry cycle to water cycle)

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Fig. 14

Ion current signal within cycle transition

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Fig. 15

Ion current signal during cycle transition (water cycle to dry cycle)

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Fig. 16

Schematic diagram of different water injector positions

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Fig. 17

Ion current signal under different water injection positions

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Fig. 18

Ion current signal under motoring condition

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Fig. 19

Ion current signal under different water injection durations

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Fig. 20

Imax and θImax under different water injection durations

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Fig. 21

Ion current signal under different water injection timings

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Fig. 22

Pmax and θPmax under different water injection timings

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Fig. 23

Imax and θImax under different water injection timings

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Fig. 24

Pressure rise rate under different water injection timings

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Fig. 25

Ion current signal under different engine loads: (a) fuel quantity = 46.7 mg, IMEP = 0.82 MPa, (b) fuel quantity = 49.7 mg, IMEP = 0.98 MPa, and (c) fuel quantity = 52.7 mg, IMEP = 1.07 MPa

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Fig. 26

Imax and dImax under different engine loads

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Fig. 27

θImax under different engine loads



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