Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Considerations in Using Photometer Instruments for Measuring Total Particulate Matter Mass Concentration in Diesel Engine Exhaust

[+] Author and Article Information
William F. Northrop

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: wnorthro@umn.edu

Darrick Zarling

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: dzarling@umn.edu

Xuesong Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mails: lixx4658@umn.edu; xuesonl@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 27, 2018; final manuscript received May 8, 2018; published online June 27, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(11), 112802 (Jun 27, 2018) (5 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1100; doi: 10.1115/1.4040306 History: Received February 27, 2018; Revised May 08, 2018

In this work, engine-out particulate matter (PM) mass emissions from an off-highway diesel engine measured using a low-cost photometer, scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), elemental versus organic carbon (EC/OC) analysis, and a photo-acoustic analyzer are compared. Tested engine operating modes spanned the range of those known to result in high semivolatile particle concentration and those that emit primarily solid particles. Photometer measurements were taken following a primary dilution stage and a sample conditioner to control relative humidity prior to the instrument. Results of the study show that the photometer could qualitatively track total particle mass trends over the tested engine conditions though it was not accurate in measuring total carbon (TC) mass concentration. Further, the required photometric calibration factor (PCF) required to accurately measure total PM mass changes with the OC fraction of the particles. Variables that influence PCF include particle effective density, which changes both as a function of particle diameter and OC fraction. Differences in refractive index between semivolatile and solid particles are also significant and contribute to high error associated with measurement of total PM using the photometer. This work illustrates that it may be too difficult to accurately measure total engine PM mass with a photometer without knowing additional information about the sampled particles. However, removing semivolatile organic materials prior to the instrument may allow the accurate estimation of EC mass concentration alone.

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Fig. 2

Diagram of engine test setup

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Fig. 1

Schematic of a DT photometer instrument

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Fig. 3

Comparison of particle mass concentration for the four tested engine conditions. The top panel shows total particle mass concentration measured by integrated SMPS, DT, and TC from NIOSH 5040 and the bottom panel shows solid particle concentration measured by MSS and EC.

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Fig. 4

Total particle size distributions for three engine modes tested in the study

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Fig. 5

Total particle mass distributions for the three tested engine conditions. Effective density (ρe) as a function of particle size as given by Liu et al. [11] is also shown

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Fig. 6

Schematic of particle scattering for different particle types. Panel (a): incident light propagates in a spherical particle, refracted and reflected, resulting in different scattering intensity in various scattering angles; panel (b): particle with a core with a different m will result in different resulting scattered light angles; and panel (c): estimated phase functions for particles with different diameters and m, subject to light with a wavelength (λ) of 655 nm shown as scattering intensity as a function of scattering angle.



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