Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Effects of Wall Heat Loss on Swirl-Stabilized Nonpremixed Flames With Localized Extinction

[+] Author and Article Information
Huangwei Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National University of Singapore,
9 Engineering Drive 1,
Singapore 117576
e-mail: huangwei.zhang@nus.edu.sg

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 25, 2018; final manuscript received May 10, 2018; published online August 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Sunil Patil.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(12), 121506 (Aug 20, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1091; doi: 10.1115/1.4040516 History: Received February 25, 2018; Revised May 10, 2018

Large eddy simulation (LES) with three-dimensional conditional moment closure (CMC) subgrid model for combustion is applied to simulate a swirl-stabilized nonpremixed methane flame with localized extinction, with special focus on the effects of heat loss to the burner surface. The convective wall heat loss is modeled through introducing a source term in the conditionally filtered total enthalpy equation for the CMC cells adjacent to the wall. The mean heat flux is high on the middle surface of the bluff body, but relatively low near its edges. The turbulent heat flux based on the gradient of the resolved temperature is relatively low compared to the laminar counterpart, but increases with the turbulent intensity. The heat loss facilitates the occurrences of extinction and re-ignition for the CMC cells immediately adjacent to the wall, evidenced by comparing flame structures in the near-wall CMC cells. This can be directly linked to the increase of the mean conditional scalar dissipation near the wall in the heat loss case. Furthermore, the degree of local extinction near the bluff body measured by conditional reactedness at stoichiometry is intensified due to the wall heat loss. However, the results also show that there is negligible influence of wall heat loss on the probability density function (PDF) of the lift-off height, demonstrating the dominance of aerodynamic effects on flame stabilization. The results are in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements.

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Fig. 1

Schematic showing CMC cell reconstruction and coupling between LES and CMC solvers [29]. The two-dimensional mesh denotes the slice through a three-dimensional unstructured LES mesh. Lines enclosing the continuous grey cells are CMC edges while other lines are LES ones. Circles denote centroids of LES cells while squares CMC nodes. The cells enclosed by CMC edges are the reconstructed CMC cells.

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Fig. 7

Radial profiles of mean heat flux and temperature gradient on the bluff body surface (0.08 ≤ r/Db ≤0.5)

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Fig. 6

Radial profiles of mean (left) and rms (right) swirl velocity at x/Db = 0.4, 0.6, 2.2 and 4.4. These locations are indicated in Fig. 3.

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Fig. 5

Radial profiles of mean (left) and rms (right) axial velocity at x/Db = 0.4, 0.6, 2.2 and 4.4. These locations are indicated in Fig. 3.

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Fig. 4

Reconstructed CMC mesh statistics: number of (a) LES cells and (b) CMC faces constituting one CMC cell

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Fig. 3

Schematic of LES mesh distribution in the annulus and combustion chamber

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Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the burner and (b) the swirler as well as the bluff body

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Fig. 9

Variations of conditionally filtered (a) volumetric heat loss and (b) total enthalpy. Symbols: mean conditional heat flux. The data are from a CMC cell immediately adjacent to the bluff body surface (CMC cell centroid coordinate: x/Db = 0.012, y/Db = 0.4 and z/Db = 0).

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Fig. 8

Probability density function of the bluff body surface heat flux. The data are extracted both in time and space over the whole bluff body surface.

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Fig. 10

Time records of conditionally filtered (a) heat release rate, (b) OH mass fraction, (c) temperature, (d) scalar dissipation, and (e) volumetric heat loss at η = ξst from the same CMC cell as in Fig. 9

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Fig. 11

Comparisons of the mean conditional mass fractions of (a) CH4, (b) O2, (c) H2O, and (d) CH2O between adiabatic (dash-dot lines) and heat loss (solid lines) cases. The same CMC cell as in Fig. 9.

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Fig. 12

Comparisons of the mean conditional (a) OH mass fraction, (b) heat release rate, (c) temperature, and (d) total enthalpy between adiabatic (dash-dot lines) and heat loss (solid lines) cases. The same CMC cell as in Fig. 9.

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Fig. 13

Probability density function of reactedness at η = ξst from (a) temperature, mass fractions of (b) OH, (c) CO, and (d) NO. Dash-dot lines: adiabatic case, solid lines: heat loss case.

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Fig. 14

The mean conditional scalar dissipation rates of three near-wall CMC cells (x/Db = z/Db = 0) from adiabatic and heat loss cases

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Fig. 15

Comparisons of mean conditional OH mass fractions between adiabatic (dash-dot lines) and heat loss (solid lines) cases at four streamwise positions x/Db = (a) 0.03, (b) 0.17, (c) 0.8, and (d) 1.6 with y/Db = 0.4 and z/Db = 0

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Fig. 16

Iso-surfaces of instantaneous stoichiometric mixture fraction colored by conditional (a) OH mass fraction and (b) temperature at stoichiometry

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Fig. 17

Probability density function of reactedness at η = ξst from (a) temperature and (b) OH mass fraction corresponding to the three-dimensional stoichiometric iso-surface within 0 ≤ x/Db ≤ 0.8

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Fig. 18

Probability density functions of lift-off height from simulations with (a) heat loss and (b) adiabatic walls [34]. Line: experimental results [28].



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