Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Sources of Particulate Matter Emissions Variability From a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Manuel J. M. G. Ramos

Department of Mechanical and Industrial
University of Toronto,
5 King's College Road, Toronto,
ON M5S3G8, Canada
e-mail: manuel.ramos@mail.utoronto.ca

James S. Wallace

Department of Mechanical and Industrial
University of Toronto,
5 King's College Road, Toronto, ON M5S3G8,
e-mail: wallace@mie.utoronto.ca

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received March 7, 2018; final manuscript received April 19, 2018; published online August 30, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(12), 122805 (Aug 30, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1118; doi: 10.1115/1.4040515 History: Received March 07, 2018; Revised April 19, 2018

Particulate matter (PM) emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are a concern due to the health effects associated with ultrafine PM. This experimental study investigated sources of PM emissions measurement variability observed in previous tests and also examined the effect of ethanol content in gasoline on PM emissions. Some engine operating parameters (fuel and oil temperature, positive crankcase ventilation filtration) and test conditions (dilution air conditions) were studied and controlled but could not account for the level of measurement variability observed. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) measurements of gas phase hydrocarbon emissions provided evidence that changes in fuel composition were responsible for the variability. Exhaust emissions of toluene and ethanol were correlated positively with PM emissions, while emissions of isobutylene correlated negatively. Exhaust emissions of toluene and isobutylene were interpreted as markers of gasoline aromatic content and gasoline volatility, respectively. Tests conducted with gasoline containing added toluene (10% v/v) supported this hypothesis and led to the overall conclusion that the PM emissions variability observed can be attributed to changes in the composition of the pump gasoline being used. Tests conducted with gasoline containing added ethanol (10% and 30% v/v) found that increasing ethanol fuel content increased PM emissions at the steady-state operating condition utilized.

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Fig. 1

Research engine and emissions sampling arrangement

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Fig. 2

Relative standard deviations of total PN concentration with ambient dilution air and dry dilution air

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Fig. 3

Two minute average particle size distributions for ambient and dry dilution air test groups. Error bars indicate standard error.

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Fig. 4

Normalized particle size distributions from Fig. 3. Error bars indicate standard error.

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Fig. 5

Particle number concentration change during a step change in fuel temperature

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Fig. 6

Two minute average PN concentrations with mileage accumulation as a function of time since oil change

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Fig. 7

Successive borescope images of the cylinder #2 fuel injector face: (a) image key, (b) August 1, (c) August 16, and (d) September 9

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Fig. 8

Images of intake runners for cylinders 1–4 from left to right: (a) before engine cleaning and (b) after engine cleaning

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Fig. 9

Collected oil/condensate in the intake manifold plenum, viewed from the perspective of the throttle body. Note that the manifold has been rotated on its side to purposely collect oil at the far side of the plenum to show the relative quantity of oil.

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Fig. 10

Oil separator filter before use (left) and after E10 test group (right). Absorbed oil is shown in right image by dark spots on filter media.

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Fig. 11

Successive images of the cylinder #4 intake runners and valves: (a) August 1, (b) August 16, and (c) September 9

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Fig. 12

Particle number emissions before and after the engine cleaning. Shaded areas indicate standard error.

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Fig. 13

Relative standard deviation of PN measurements before and after engine cleaning

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Fig. 14

Two minute average PN versus toluene exhaust concentration at run end for the different test fuels with LLS regression lines shown2

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Fig. 15

Two minute average PN versus isobutylene exhaust concentration at run end for the different test fuels with LLS regression lines shown2



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