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Research Papers

Influence of Upstream Exhaust Manifold on Pulsatile Turbocharger Turbine Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Shyang Maw Lim

Department of Mechanics,
Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx),
KTH Royal Institute of Technology,
Osquars Backe 18,
Stockholm 10044, Sweden
e-mail: smlim@kth.se

Anders Dahlkild

Department of Mechanics,
Linné Flow Center (FLOW),
KTH Royal Institute of Technology,
Osquars Backe 18,
Stockholm 10044, Sweden
e-mail: ad@mech.kth.se

Mihai Mihaescu

Department of Mechanics,
Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx)
and Linné Flow Center (FLOW),
KTH Royal Institute of Technology,
Osquars Backe 18,
Stockholm 10044, Sweden
e-mail: mihai@mech.kth.se

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 21, 2018; final manuscript received December 12, 2018; published online February 15, 2019. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(6), 061010 (Feb 15, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1704; doi: 10.1115/1.4042301 History: Received November 21, 2018; Revised December 12, 2018

This research was primary motivated by limited efforts to understand the effects of secondary flow and flow unsteadiness on the heat transfer and the performance of a turbocharger turbine subjected to pulsatile flow. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of exhaust manifold on the flow physics and the performance of its downstream components, including the effects on heat transfer, under engine-like pulsatile flow conditions. Based on the predicted results by detached eddy simulation (DES), qualitative and quantitative flow fields analyses in the scroll and the rotor's inlet were performed, in addition to the quantification of turbine performance by using the flow exergy methodology. With the specified geometry configuration and exhaust valve strategy, our study showed that (1) the exhaust manifold influences the flow field and the heat transfer in the scroll significantly and (2) although the exhaust gas blow-down disturbs the relative flow angle at rotor inlet, the consequence on the turbine power is relatively small.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Overview of the research strategy for this study, exposing the employed computational domains and boundary conditions (BCs). Note that the turbine inlet is also the exhaust manifold–scroll interface. The labels 1500F1D, 1500FS, and 1500S1D are the name of the test cases as shown in Table 1.

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Fig. 2

Computational domain and mesh details for the full geometry; monitoring planes for data sampling purposes are exposed. Note that the simple geometry has identical mesh size characteristics as the full geometry. See Fig. 8 for the detailed geometry and mesh of the rotor.

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Fig. 3

Comparison of the time-varying (a) mass flow rate and (b) mass weighted average total temperature at turbine inlet predicted by 1D model and full geometry for 1500 rpm engine speed. See Fig. 2 for the location of turbine inlet. Abscissa is normalized by the period of 1500 rpm engine speed. The sequence of peak amplitudes corresponds to firing order 2-1-3-4 from left to right. Filled and unfilled circles lie on the solid and the dashed lines, respectively. The data for the full geometry is ensemble averaged based on three engine cycles: (a) mass flow rate and (b) total temperature.

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Fig. 4

Comparison of instantaneous turbine power predicted by 1D model and full geometry. The abscissa is normalized by the period of 1500 rpm engine speed. The sequence of the peak amplitudes correspond to firing order 2-1-3-4 from left to right. The data for the full geometry is ensemble averaged based on three engine cycles.

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Fig. 5

Space–time diagram of incident angle at rotor inlet. See Figs. 2 and 8 for the locations of monitoring probe points and the definition of βi, respectively. Time instances A, B, C, and D are labeled in Fig. 3. The data are ensemble averaged over three engine cycles for the full geometry (1500F1D), and ensemble averaged over three pulse periods for the simple geometry (1500SF and 1500S1D). (a) 1500F1D (overall), (b) 1500F1D (port 2 only), (c) 1500SF, and (d) 1500S1D.

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Fig. 6

Comparisons of flow exergy budget for different regions in the turbine system for 1500 rpm engine speed. The data is time-averaged over three engine cycles for the full geometry (1500F1D), and time-averaged over three pulse periods for the simple geometry (1500SF and 1500S1D).

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Fig. 7

Instantaneous static temperature superimposed with streamlines in the scroll for (left) 1500F1D, (middle) 1500SF, and (right) 1500S1D cases. See Figs. 2 and 3 for the locations of sectional planes and time instances A, B, C, and D, respectively. (a) Time instance A (corresponds to the acceleration phase at m˙T−1500=0.0567 kg/s), (b) time instance B (corresponds to the acceleration phase at m˙T−1500=0.1134 kg/s), (c) time instance C (corresponds to the deceleration phase at m˙T−1500=0.1134 kg/s), and (d) time instance D (corresponds to the deceleration phase at m˙T−1500=0.0567 kg/s).

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Fig. 8

The rotor's geometry and mesh, and a sketch of the velocity triangle at rotor's inlet. The computational grid at the midspan surface is shown in an unwrap view. Subscript 1 denoted rotor's inlet. See Fig. 2 for the location of θ = 0 deg.

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