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Research Papers

Second-Law Thermodynamic Analysis in Premixed Flames of Ammonia and Hydrogen Binary Fuels

[+] Author and Article Information
Jiabo Zhang

Key Laboratory for Power
Machinery and Engineering,
Ministry of Education,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: zhangjiabo@sjtu.edu.cn

Anhao Zhong

Key Laboratory for Power
Machinery and Engineering,
Ministry of Education,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai, 200240, China
e-mail: zhongah@sjtu.edu.cn

Zhen Huang

Key Laboratory for Power
Machinery and Engineering,
Ministry of Education,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai, 200240, China
e-mail: z-huang@sjtu.edu.cn

Dong Han

Key Laboratory for Power
Machinery and Engineering,
Ministry of Education,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai, 200240, China
e-mail: dong_han@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 5, 2018; final manuscript received December 26, 2018; published online February 5, 2019. Assoc. Editor: William Northrop.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(7), 071007 (Feb 05, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1640; doi: 10.1115/1.4042412 History: Received October 05, 2018; Revised December 26, 2018

A theoretical analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics was conducted for the ammonia/hydrogen/air premixed flames at different initial pressures. The irreversibility causing exergy losses in premixed flames was divided into five parts, namely, heat conduction, mass diffusion, viscous dissipation, chemical reaction, and incomplete combustion, respectively. The results revealed that as the hydrogen percentage in fuel blends increased from 0% to 100%, the total exergy losses decreased. Specifically, the exergy destructions induced by heat conduction and mass diffusion decreased with the increasing hydrogen percentage. The exergy loss induced by incomplete combustion increased with hydrogen addition, as more incomplete combustion products such as H2, H, and OH were generated with the increasing hydrogen percentage. The exergy destruction by chemical reactions first decreased and then increased with the increasing hydrogen percentage, which was attributed to the combination effects of the increased entropy generation rate and reduced flame thickness. Compared to the other four sources, the exergy destruction induced by viscous dissipation was negligible. Furthermore, at the elevated pressure of 5 atm, the effects of hydrogen blending were similar to those at the atmospheric condition. However, the exergy destructions by heat conduction and mass diffusion increased while the exergy destruction by the chemical reaction and the exergy loss by incomplete combustion were both reduced, with the overall exergy loss decreased by 1–2% as the pressure increased from 1 atm to 5 atm.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Normalized entropy generation rates and temperature profiles in the premixed laminar flames of NH3 and H2 binary fuels at atmospheric and elevated pressures. P0 = 1 atm/5 atm, T0 = 298 K, and φ = 1.0.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Temperature gradients in the premixed flames of NH3 and H2 binary fuels: (a) P0 = 1 atm and (b) P0 = 5 atm, T0 = 298 K, and φ = 1.0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Top five reactions contributing to the entropy generation by chemical reactions in the premixed flames of NH3 and H2 binary fuels at atmospheric and elevated pressures, P0 = 1 atm/5 atm, T0 = 298 K, and φ = 1.0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The normalized entropy generation rate by heat conduction in the premixed laminar flames of NH3 and H2 binary fuels. P0 = 1 atm/5 atm, T0 = 298 K, and φ = 1.0.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Primary species contributing to the exergy destruction by mass diffusion in the flames of different NH3/H2 binary fuels. (a) P0 = 1 atm and (b) P0 = 5 atm. T0 = 298 K and φ = 1.0.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Mole fraction profiles of NH3, H2, O2, H2O, H, OH, and O in the flames of different NH3/H2 binary fuels. P0 = 1 atm, T0 = 298 K, and φ = 1.0.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Exergy loss from each source in the premixed flames of NH3 and H2 binary fuels at atmospheric and elevated pressures. P0 = 1 atm/5 atm, T0 = 298 K, and φ = 1.0.

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