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Research Papers

Trajectory of a Liquid Jet in a High Temperature and Pressure Gaseous Cross Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Amirreza Amighi

Department of Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering,
University of Toronto,
5 King's College Road,
Toronto, ON L3T 7N1, Canada
e-mail: amighi@mie.utoronto.ca

Nasser Ashgriz

Department of Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering,
University of Toronto,
5 King's College Road,
Toronto, ON L3T 7N1, Canada
e-mail: ashgriz@mie.utoronto.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 26, 2017; final manuscript received February 7, 2019; published online March 1, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Marc D. Polanka.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(6), 061019 (Mar 01, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1405; doi: 10.1115/1.4042817 History: Received July 26, 2017; Revised February 07, 2019

An experimental study of liquid jet injection into subsonic air crossflow is presented. The aim of this study was to relate the jet trajectory to flow parameters, including jet and air velocities, pressure and temperature, as well as a set of nondimensional variables. For this purpose, an experimental setup was developed, which could withstand high temperatures and pressures. Images were captured using a laser-based shadowgraphy system. A total of 209 different conditions were tested and over 72,000 images were captured and processed. The crossflow air temperatures were 25 °C, 200 °C, and 300 °C; absolute crossflow air pressures were 2.1, 3.8, and 5.2 bars, and various liquid and gas velocities were tested for each given temperature and pressure. The results indicate that the trajectory and atomization change when the air and jet velocities are changed while keeping the momentum flux ratio constant. Therefore, it is beneficial to describe the trajectory based on air and jet Weber numbers or momentum flux ratio in combination with one of the Weber numbers. Also, examples are given where both Weber numbers are kept constant but the atomization is changed, and therefore, other terms beyond inertia terms are required to describe the spray behavior. It is also shown that the gas viscosity has to be considered when developing correlations. The correlations that include this term are generally better in predicting the trajectory. Therefore, Ohnesorge numbers in combination with the Weber numbers is used in the present correlations to describe the trajectories.

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References

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Thawley, S. M. , Mondragon, U. M. , Brown, C. T. , and McDonell, V. G. , 2008, “ Evaluation of Column Break Point and Trajectory for a Plain Liquid Jet Injected Into a Crossflow,” 21st Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (ILASS-Americas), Orlando, FL, May 18–21.
Becker, J. , and Hassa, C. , 2002, “ Breakup and Atomization of a Kerosene Jet in Crossflow at Elevated Pressure,” Atomization Sprays, 11, pp. 49–67. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 10

Mean image boundaries, red outline based on triangle threshold along with few of the plume areas superimposed

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Fig. 2

The image shows a shadowgraph of an instantaneous laser light sheet, the boundaries of a time average image shown by the black line, and the time average plume boundaries by the red line. Conditions: p = 3.8 bars, T = 25 °C, VJet= 24 m/s, and VAir = 41 m/s.

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Fig. 3

Comparison of four cases with similar conditions and constant momentum flux ratio but different jet and air velocities. Temperature, pressure, and nozzle diameter is the same in all four cases. T = 200 °C, P = 5.2 bar, DN = 457 μm.

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Fig. 4

Comparison of two cases with constant momentum flux ratio, and air and jet Weber numbers. Nozzle diameter is the same for both cases, DN = 457 μm.

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Fig. 5

Comparison of two cases with constant momentum flux ratio, and air and jet Weber numbers. Nozzle diameter is the same for both cases, DN = 457 μm: (a) T = 200 °C, p = 2.1 bar, VAir = 128 m/s, VJet = 54 m/s, ρAir = 1.5 kg/m3, WeAir = 157.8, WeJet = 18,639, q = 118, OhAir = 0.0037; (b) T = 200 °C, p = 5.2 bar, VAir = 81 m/s, VJet = 54 m/s, ρAir = 3.8 kg/m3, WeAir = 156.6, WeJet = 18,649, q = 119, OhAir = 0.0023.

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Fig. 6

Comparison of initial breakup on the lee side of the jet for different nozzle diameters at 25 °C and 300 °C, at constant pressure of 2.1 bar, and constant jet and air velocities VAir = 62m/s VJet = 19/s. (a) and (c) DN = 572 μm, and (b) and (d) DN = 457 μm.

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Fig. 7

Comparison of the three trajectories with jet and air velocity kept constant for each case but at three different temperatures, 25 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C: (a) DN = 572 μm, p = 3.8 bar, VAir ≈ 65 m/s and VJet = 19 m/s for all cases. Momentum flux ratios are 19, 28, and 35, respectively, for T = 25 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C; (b) DN = 457 μm, p = 2.1 bar, VAir ≈ 49 m/s and VJet = 19 m/s for all cases. Momentum flux ratios are 62, 105, and 126, respectively, for T = 25 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C.

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Fig. 8

Comparison of jet trajectories with jet and air velocity kept constant for each case but at three different temperatures. These are the sample images of the conditions that are compared in Fig. 6. (a), (b), and (c) DN = 572 μm, p = 3.8 bar, VAir ≈ 65 m/s, and VJet=19 m/s for all cases. Momentum flux ratios are 19, 28, and 35, respectively, for T = 25 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C. (d), (e), and (f) DN = 457 μm, p = 2.1 bar, VAir ≈ 49 m/s and VJet = 19 m/s for all cases. Momentum flux ratios are 62, 105, and 126, respectively, for T = 25 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C.

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Fig. 9

(a) Mean image and (b) same image after thresholding and particle analysis

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Fig. 11

Comparison of mean image trajectory with trajectory of individual images

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Fig. 12

Comparison of various centerline trajectory correlations at different temperatures, all other parameters are kept constant VAir ≈ 68 m/s and VJet = 19 m/s, DN = 572 μm, p = 3.8 bar. These are based on fitting the present experimental data with various researchers. The data points for the experiments are shown as triangles and various correlations are shown with different types of lines. Elshamy: Eq. (12), Ragucci et al.: Eq. (13), Tambe et al.: Eq. (14), and present correlation, Eq. (6). (a) T = 25 °C, q = 19, (b) T = 200 °C, q = 28, and (c) T = 300 °C, q = 35. These are the same conditions presented in Figs. 6 and 7.

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