Several types of analyses in biomechanics require estimates of both muscle force and stiffness. Simulations were performed using the two-state cross-bridge Bond Distribution-Moment muscle model of Zahalak (1981), together with other parameters for passive elasticity and tendon compliance, to estimate instantaneous stiffness and to compare these estimates with the wide range of values reported in the literature. While the relatively simple cross-bridge theory appears to approximate the stiffness of skinned muscle fibers, the stiffness of a complete muscle-tendon unit become complex and non-linear due to relative changes in muscle-tendon length and interaction with activation and length dependent passive elastic components. It would appear that the variability in muscle stiffness values reported in the literature can be explained with the D-M approach.
Relationship Between Muscle Force and Stiffness in the Whole Mammalian Muscle: A Simulation Study
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Cholewicki, J., and McGill, S. M. (August 1, 1995). "Relationship Between Muscle Force and Stiffness in the Whole Mammalian Muscle: A Simulation Study." ASME. J Biomech Eng. August 1995; 117(3): 339–342. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2794189
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