Abstract

Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) has been one of the most common locations of hand OA. CMC OA disproportionately occurs in females over males. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be needed. However, to determine the effects of surgical treatment, normative, pre-, and postsurgery function must be understood. The goals of this work were to compare the thumb motion and force abilities of older healthy (OH) females without CMC OA to those of females with CMC OA and who received ligament reconstruction with tendon interposition (LRTI) surgery at time points presurgery, 3- and 6-months postsurgery. On average, CMC OA participants 3- and 6-months postsurgery showed 35.6% and 32.9% less overall metacarpal motion compared to presurgery, 31.9% and 29.1% less than OH, and exhibited altered motion. Metacarpal flexion/extension and abduction/adduction ranges were 51.9 deg and 43.4 deg for OH, 52.9 deg and 40.3 deg presurgery, 39.9 deg and 33.5 deg at 3-months, and 42.6 deg and 32.7 deg at 6-months postsurgery. On average, participants had increased force generation at 6-months postsurgery compared to presurgery, and 20% of participants returned to the level of OH females. These data sets highlight changes in thumb metacarpal movement and thumb force generation due to disease and surgical intervention. This work has the ability to support both surgeons and patients through improved outcome assessments as well as additional data to inform the decision process on intervention.

References

1.
Kloppenburg
,
M.
, and
Kwok
,
W. Y.
,
2012
, “
Hand Osteoarthritis—A Heterogeneous Disorder
,”
Nat. Rev. Rheumatol.
,
8
(
1
), pp.
22
31
.10.1038/nrrheum.2011.170
2.
Haugen
,
I. K.
,
Englund
,
M.
,
Aliabadi
,
P.
,
Niu
,
J.
,
Clancy
,
M.
,
Kvien
,
T. K.
, and
Felson
,
D. T.
,
2011
, “
Prevalence, Incidence and Progression of Hand Osteoarthritis in the General Population: The Framingham Osteoarthritis Study
,”
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
,
70
(
9
), pp.
1581
1586
.10.1136/ard.2011.150078
3.
Leung
,
G. J.
,
Rainsford
,
K. D.
, and
Kean
,
W. F.
,
2014
, “
Osteoarthritis of the Hand I: Aetiology and Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, Investigation and Diagnosis
,”
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
,
66
(
3
), pp.
339
346
.10.1111/jphp.12196
4.
Dillon
,
C. F.
,
Hirsch
,
R.
,
Rasch
,
E. K.
, and
Gu
,
Q.
,
2007
, “
Symptomatic Hand Osteoarthritis in the United States: Prevalence and Functional Impairment Estimates From the Third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1991-1994
,”
Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil.
,
86
(
1
), pp.
12
21
.10.1097/PHM.0b013e31802ba28e
5.
van der Oest
,
M. J. W.
,
Duraku
,
L. S.
,
Andrinopoulou
,
E. R.
,
Wouters
,
R. M.
,
Bierma-Zeinstra
,
S. M. A.
,
Selles
,
R. W.
, and
Zuidam
,
J. M.
,
2021
, “
The Prevalence of Radiographic Thumb Base Osteoarthritis: A Meta-Analysis
,”
Osteoarthritis Cartilage
,
29
(
6
), pp.
785
792
.10.1016/j.joca.2021.03.004
6.
Dahaghin
,
S.
,
Bierma-Zeinstra
,
S. M. A.
,
Ginai
,
A. Z.
,
Pols
,
H. A. P.
,
Hazes
,
J. M. W.
, and
Koes
,
B. W.
,
2005
, “
Prevalence and Pattern of Radiographic Hand Osteoarthritis and Association With Pain and Disability (the Rotterdam Study)
,”
Ann. Rheum. Dis
,
64
(
5
), pp.
682
687
.10.1136/ard.2004.023564
7.
Felson
,
D. T.
,
1988
, “
Epidemiology of Hip and Knee Osteoartrritis
,”
Epidemiol. Rev.
,
10
(
1
), pp.
1
28
.10.1093/oxfordjournals.epirev.a036019
8.
Dhar
,
S.
,
Gray
,
I. C. M.
,
Jones
,
W. A.
, and
Beddow
,
F. H.
,
1994
, “
Simple Excision of the Trapezium for Osteoarthritis of the Carpometacarpal Joint of the Thumb
,”
J. Hand Surg.
,
19
(
4
), pp.
485
488
.10.1016/0266-7681(94)90214-3
9.
Pellegrini
,
V. D.
,
2005
, “
The ABJS 2005 Nicolas Andry Award: Osteoarthritis and Injury at the Base of the Human Thumb—Survival of the Fittest?
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
, 438, pp.
266
276
.10.1097/01.blo.0000176968.28247.5c
10.
Dias
,
R.
,
Chandrasenan
,
J.
,
Rajaratnam
,
V.
, and
Burke
,
F. D.
,
2007
, “
Basal Thumb Arthritis
,”
Postgrad. Med. J.
,
83
(
975
), pp.
40
43
.10.1136/pgmj.2006.046300
11.
Barron
,
O.
,
Glickel
,
S.
, and
Eaton
,
R.
,
2000
, “
Basal Joint Arthritis of the Thumb
,”
J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg.
,
8
(
5
), pp.
314
323
.10.5435/00124635-200009000-00005
12.
Batra
,
S.
, and
Kanvinde
,
R.
,
2007
, “
Osteoarthritis of the Thumb Trapeziometacarpal Joint
,”
Curr. Orthop.
,
21
(
2
), pp.
135
144
.10.1016/j.cuor.2007.02.006
13.
Patel
,
T. J.
,
Beredjiklian
,
P. K.
, and
Matzon
,
J. L.
,
2013
, “
Trapeziometacarpal Joint Arthritis
,”
Curr. Rev. Musculoskelet. Med.
,
6
(
1
), pp.
1
8
.10.1007/s12178-012-9147-6
14.
Mitobe
,
K.
,
Saitoh
,
M.
, and
Yoshimura
,
N.
,
2010
, “
Analysis of Dexterous Finger Movements for Writing Using a Hand Motion Capture System
,”
IEEE International Conference on Virtual Environments, Human-Computer Interfaces and Measurement Systems, Proceedings, VECIMS 2010
, Taranto, Italy, Sept. 6–8, pp.
60
63
.10.1109/VECIMS.2010.5609351
15.
Gustafsson
,
E.
,
Johnson
,
P. W.
, and
Hagberg
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Thumb Postures and Physical Loads During Mobile Phone Use – A Comparison of Young Adults With and Without Musculoskeletal Symptoms
,”
J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol.
,
20
(
1
), pp.
127
135
.10.1016/j.jelekin.2008.11.010
16.
Barakat
,
M. J.
,
Field
,
J.
, and
Taylor
,
J.
,
2013
, “
The Range of Movement of the Thumb
,”
Hand
,
8
(
2
), pp.
179
182
.10.1007/s11552-013-9492-y
17.
Holzbauer
,
M.
,
Hopfner
,
M.
,
Haslhofer
,
D.
,
Kwasny
,
O.
,
Duscher
,
D.
, and
Froschauer
,
S. M.
,
2021
, “
Radial and Palmar Active Range of Motion Measurement: Reliability of Six Methods in Healthy Adults
,”
J. Plast. Surg. Hand Surg.
,
55
(
1
), pp.
41
47
.10.1080/2000656X.2020.1828899
18.
Yao
,
J.
, and
Park
,
M. J.
,
2008
, “
Early Treatment of Degenerative Arthritis of the Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint
,”
Hand Clin.
,
24
(
3
), pp.
251
261
.10.1016/j.hcl.2008.03.001
19.
Tsehaie
,
J.
,
Spekreijse
,
K. R.
,
Wouters
,
R. M.
,
Feitz
,
R.
,
Hovius
,
S. E. R.
,
Slijper
,
H. P.
, and
Selles
,
R. W.
,
2019
, “
Predicting Outcome After Hand Orthosis and Hand Therapy for Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis: A Prospective Study
,”
Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.
,
100
(
5
), pp.
844
850
.10.1016/j.apmr.2018.08.192
20.
Pellegrini
,
V. D.
,
1991
, “
Osteoarthritis of the Trapeziometacarpal Joint: The Pathophysiology of Articular Cartilage Degeneration. I—Anatomy and Pathology of the Aging Joint
,”
J. Hand Surg.
,
16
(
6
), pp.
967
974
.10.1016/S0363-5023(10)80054-1
21.
Neumann
,
D. A.
, and
Bielefeld
,
T.
,
2003
, “
The Carpometacarpal Joint of the Thumb: Stability, Deformity, and Therapeutic Intervention
,”
J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther.
,
33
(
7
), pp.
386
399
.10.2519/jospt.2003.33.7.386
22.
Eaton
,
R. G.
,
Lane
,
L. B.
,
Littler
,
J. W.
, and
Keyser
,
J. J.
,
1984
, “
Ligament Reconstruction for the Painful Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint: A Long-Term Assessment
,”
J. Hand Surg. Am.
,
9
(
5
), pp.
692
699
.10.1016/S0363-5023(84)80015-5
23.
Imaeda
,
T.
,
Niebur
,
G.
,
Cooney
,
W. P.
, III
,
Linscheid
,
R. L.
, and
An
,
K.-N.
,
1994
, “
Kinematics of the Normal Trapeziometacarpal Joint
,”
J. Orthop. Res.
,
12
(
2
), pp.
197
204
.10.1002/jor.1100120208
24.
Eaton
,
R. A.
,
William
,
N.
, and
York
,
N. Y.
,
1973
, “
Ligament Reconstruction for the Painful Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint
,”
J. Bone Jt. Surg.
,
55
(
8
), pp.
1655
1666
.10.2106/00004623-197355080-00010
25.
Lee
,
H. J.
,
Paik
,
N. J.
,
Lim
,
J. Y.
,
Kim
,
K. W.
, and
Gong
,
H. S.
,
2012
, “
The Impact of Digit-Related Radiographic Osteoarthritis of the Hand on Grip-Strength and Upper Extremity Disability Hand
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
,
470
(
8
), pp.
2202
2208
.10.1007/s11999-012-2253-3
26.
Schneider
,
M. T. Y.
,
Zhang
,
J.
,
Crisco
,
J. J.
,
Weiss
,
A. P. C.
,
Ladd
,
A. L.
,
Nielsen
,
P.
, and
Besier
,
T.
,
2015
, “
Men and Women Have Similarly Shaped Carpometacarpal Joint Bones
,”
J. Biomech.
,
48
(
12
), pp.
3420
3426
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.05.031
27.
Fontana
,
L.
,
Neel
,
S.
,
Claise
,
J. M.
,
Ughetto
,
S.
, and
Catilina
,
P.
,
2007
, “
Osteoarthritis of the Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint in Women and Occupational Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study
,”
J. Hand Surg.
,
32
(
4
), pp.
459
465
.10.1016/j.jhsa.2007.01.014
28.
Balasubramanian
,
R.
, and
Santos
,
V. J.
,
2014
,
The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development
,
Springer
, Cham, Switzerland.
29.
Dickson
,
R. A.
, and
Morrison
,
J. D.
,
1979
, “
The Pattern of Joint Involvement in Hands With Arthritis at the Base of the Thumb
,”
Hand
,
os-11
(
3
), pp.
249
255
.10.1016/S0072-968X(79)80046-7
30.
Burton
,
R. I.
,
1973
, “
Basal Joint Arthrosis of the Thumb
,”
Orthop. Clin. North Am.
,
4
(
2
), pp.
331
348
.10.1016/S0030-5898(20)30797-5
31.
Matullo
,
K. S.
,
Ilyas
,
A.
, and
Thoder
,
J. J.
,
2007
, “
CMC Arthroplasty of the Thumb: A Review
,”
Hand
,
2
(
4
), pp.
232
239
.10.1007/s11552-007-9068-9
32.
Kloppenburg
,
M.
,
Kroon
,
F. P. B.
,
Blanco
,
F. J.
,
Doherty
,
M.
,
Dziedzic
,
K. S.
,
Greibrokk
,
E.
,
Haugen
,
I. K.
, et al.,
2019
, “
2018 Update of the EULAR Recommendations for the Management of Hand Osteoarthritis
,”
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
,
78
(
1
), pp.
16
24
.10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-213826
33.
Grobet
,
C.
,
Audigé
,
L.
,
Eichler
,
K.
,
Meier
,
F.
,
Marks
,
M.
, and
Herren
,
D. B.
,
2022
, “
Cost-Utility Analysis of Thumb Carpometacarpal Resection Arthroplasty: A Health Economic Study Using Real-World Data
,”
J. Hand Surg.
, 47(5), pp.
445
453
.10.1016/j.jhsa.2022.01.013
34.
Lane
,
J. C. E.
,
Craig
,
R.
,
Rees
,
J. L.
,
Gardiner
,
M.
,
Mikhail
,
M. M.
,
Riley
,
N.
,
Prieto-Alhambra
,
D.
, and
Furniss
,
D.
,
2021
, “
Low Rates of Serious Complications and Further Procedures Following Surgery for Base of Thumb Osteoarthritis: Analysis of a National Cohort of 43 076 Surgeries
,”
BMJ Open
,
11
(
7
), p.
e045614
.10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045614
35.
Myohanen
,
M.
,
Waris
,
E.
,
Nordback
,
P. H.
,
Mattila
,
S.
, and
Aspinen
,
S.
,
2022
, “
Substantial Increase in the Incidence of Surgery for Osteoarthritis of the Base of the Thumb Between 1997 and 2019 in Finland
,”
Vivo (Brooklyn)
,
36
(
2
), pp.
833
838
.10.21873/invivo.12770
36.
Burton
,
R. I.
, and
Pellegrini
,
V. D.
Jr.
,
1986
, “
Surgical Management of Basal Joint Arthritis of the Thumb. Part II. Ligament Reconstruction With Tendon Interposition Arthroplast
,”
J. Hand Surg. Am.
,
11
(
3
), pp.
324
332
.10.1016/S0363-5023(86)80137-X
37.
Yuan
,
F.
,
Aliu
,
O.
,
Chung
,
K. C.
, and
Mahmoudi
,
E.
,
2017
, “
Evidence-Based Practice in the Surgical Treatment of Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis
,”
J. Hand Surg.
,
42
(
2
), pp.
104
112.e1
.10.1016/j.jhsa.2016.11.029
38.
Yin
,
Q.
,
Berkhout
,
M. J. L.
, and
Ritt
,
M. J. P. F.
,
2019
, “
Current Trends in Operative Treatment of Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis: A Survey of European Hand Surgeons
,”
Eur. J. Plast. Surg.
,
42
(
4
), pp.
365
368
.10.1007/s00238-019-01528-8
39.
Schröder
,
J.
,
Kerkhoffs
,
G. M. M. J.
,
Voerman
,
H. J.
, and
Marti
,
R. K.
,
2002
, “
Surgical Treatment of Basal Joint Disease of the Thumb: Comparison Between Resection-Interposition Arthroplasty and Trapezio-Metacarpal Arthrodesis
,”
Arch. Orthop. Trauma Surg.
,
122
(
1
), pp.
35
38
.10.1007/s004020100313
40.
Park
,
M. J.
,
Lichtman
,
G.
,
Christian
,
J. B.
,
Weintraub
,
J.
,
Chang
,
J.
,
Hentz
,
V. R.
,
Ladd
,
A. L.
, and
Yao
,
J.
,
2008
, “
Surgical Treatment of Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis: A Single Institution Experience From 1995-2005
,”
Hand
,
3
(
4
), pp.
304
310
.10.1007/s11552-008-9109-z
41.
Dominick
,
K. L.
,
Jordan
,
J. M.
,
Renner
,
J. B.
, and
Kraus
,
V. B.
,
2005
, “
Relationship of Radiographic and Clinical Variables to Pinch and Grip Strength Among Individuals With Osteoarthritis
,”
Arthritis Rheum.
,
52
(
5
), pp.
1424
1430
.10.1002/art.21035
42.
Yang
,
S. S.
,
Weiland
,
A. J.
, and
York
,
N.
,
1998
, “
First Metacarpal Subsidence During Pinch After Ligament Reconstruction and Tendon Interposition Basal Joint Arthroplasty of the Thumb
,”
J. Hand Surg.
,
23
(
5
), pp.
879
883
.10.1016/S0363-5023(98)80167-6
43.
Nicholas
,
R. M.
, and
Calder Wood
,
J. W.
,
1992
, “
De La Caffineire Artroplasty for Basal Thumb Joint Osteoarthritis
,”
J. Bone Jt. Surg.
,
78-B
(
2
), pp. 309–312.10.1302/0301-620X.74B2.1544976
44.
Koff
,
M. F.
,
Zhao
,
K. D.
,
Mierisch
,
C. M.
,
Chen
,
M. Y.
,
An
,
K. N.
, and
Cooney
,
W. P.
,
2007
, “
Joint Kinematics After Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Reconstruction: An In Vitro Comparison of Various Constructs
,”
J. Hand Surg.
, 32(5), pp.
688
696
.10.1016/j.jhsa.2007.02.009
45.
Gangopadhyay
,
S.
,
McKenna
,
H.
,
Burke
,
F. D.
, and
Davis
,
T. R. C.
,
2012
, “
Five- to 18-Year Follow-Up for Treatment of Trapeziometacarpal Osteoarthritis: A Prospective Comparison of Excision, Tendon Interposition, and Ligament Reconstruction and Tendon Interposition
,”
J. Hand Surg. Am.
,
37
(
3
), pp.
411
417
.10.1016/j.jhsa.2011.11.027
46.
Wajon
,
A.
,
Vinycomb
,
T.
,
Carr
,
E.
,
Edmunds
,
I.
, and
Ada
,
L.
,
Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group,
2017
, “
Surgery for Thumb (Trapeziometacarpal Joint) Osteoarthritis
,”
Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.
,
2017
(
4
), pp.
1
80
.10.1002/14651858.CD004631.pub4
47.
Groth
,
G. N.
,
VanDeven
,
K. M.
,
Phillips
,
E. C.
, and
Ehretsman
,
R. L.
,
2001
, “
Goniometry of the Proximal and Distal Interphalangeal Joints, Part II: Placement Preferences, Interrater Reliability, and Concurrent Validity
,”
J. Hand Ther.
,
14
(
1
), pp.
23
29
.10.1016/S0894-1130(01)80021-1
48.
Kato
,
M.
,
Echigo
,
A.
,
Ohta
,
H.
,
Ishiai
,
S.
,
Aoki
,
M.
,
Tsubota
,
S.
, and
Uchiyama
,
E.
,
2007
, “
The Accuracy of Goniometric Measurements of Proximal Interphalangeal Joints in Fresh Cadavers: Comparison Between Methods of Measurement, Types of Goniometers, and Fingers
,”
J. Hand Ther.
,
20
(
1
), pp.
12
19
.10.1197/j.jht.2006.11.015
49.
Grood
,
E. S.
, and
Suntay
,
W. J.
,
1983
, “
A Joint Coordinate System for the Clinical Description of Three-Dimensional Motions: Application to the Knee
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
105
(
2
), pp.
136
144
.10.1115/1.3138397
50.
Gehrmann
,
S. V.
,
Tang
,
J.
,
Li
,
Z. M.
,
Goitz
,
R. J.
,
Windolf
,
J.
, and
Kaufmann
,
R. A.
,
2010
, “
Motion Deficit of the Thumb in CMC Joint Arthritis
,”
J. Hand Surg. Am.
,
35
(
9
), pp.
1449
1453
.10.1016/j.jhsa.2010.05.026
51.
D'Agostino
,
P.
,
Dourthe
,
B.
,
Kerkhof
,
F.
,
Stockmans
,
F.
, and
Vereecke
,
E. E.
,
2017
, “
In Vivo Kinematics of the Thumb During Flexion and Adduction Motion: Evidence for a Screw-Home Mechanism
,”
J. Orthop. Res.
,
35
(
7
), pp.
1556
1564
.10.1002/jor.23421
52.
Li
,
Z. M.
, and
Tang
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Coordination of Thumb Joints During Opposition
,”
J. Biomech.
,
40
(
3
), pp.
502
510
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2006.02.019
53.
Edmunds
,
J. O.
,
2011
, “
Current Concepts of the Anatomy of the Thumb Trapeziometacarpal Joint
,”
J. Hand Surg. Am.
,
36
(
1
), pp.
170
182
.10.1016/j.jhsa.2010.10.029
54.
Halilaj
,
E.
,
Moore
,
D. C.
,
Laidlaw
,
D. H.
,
Got
,
C. J.
,
Weiss
,
A. P. C.
,
Ladd
,
A. L.
, and
Crisco
,
J. J.
,
2014
, “
The Morphology of the Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Does Not Differ Between Men and Women, but Changes With Aging and Early Osteoarthritis
,”
J. Biomech.
,
47
(
11
), pp.
2709
2714
.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.05.005
55.
van Nortwick
,
S.
,
Berger
,
A.
,
Cheng
,
R.
,
Lee
,
J.
, and
Ladd
,
A.
,
2013
, “
Trapezial Topography in Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthritis
,”
J. Wrist Surg.
,
2
(
3
), pp.
263
270
.10.1055/s-0033-1350088
56.
Hamann
,
N.
,
Heidemann
,
J.
,
Heinrich
,
K.
,
Wu
,
H.
,
Bleuel
,
J.
,
Gonska
,
C.
, and
Brüggemann
,
G. P.
,
2014
, “
Effect of Carpometacarpal Joint Osteoarthritis, Sex, and Handedness on Thumb In Vivo Kinematics
,”
J. Hand Surg.
,
39
(
11
), pp.
2161
2167
.10.1016/j.jhsa.2014.08.012
57.
Drost
,
J. P.
,
2019
, “
Complete Kinematic and Kinetic Hand Function: A Method, Mapping and Model
,”
Ph.D. dissertation
,
Michigan State University
,
East Lansing, MI
.https://d.lib.msu.edu/etd/48249
58.
Vocelle
,
A. R.
,
Shafer
,
G.
, and
Bush
,
T. R.
,
2020
, “
Complex Thumb Motions and Their Potential Clinical Value in Identifying Early Changes in Function
,”
Clin. Biomech.
,
73
, pp.
63
70
.10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2020.01.004
59.
Endo
,
H.
,
2015
, “
Application of Robotic Manipulability Indices to Evaluate Thumb Performance During Smartphone Touch Operations
,”
Ergonomics
,
58
(
5
), pp.
736
747
.10.1080/00140139.2014.986222
60.
Tang
,
J.
,
Zhang
,
X.
, and
Li
,
Z.-M.
,
2008
, “
Operational and Maximal Workspace of the Thumb
,”
Ergonomics
,
51
(
7
), pp.
1109
1118
.10.1080/00140130801958667
61.
Burton
,
R. I.
, and
Pellegrini
,
V. D.
,
1986
, “
Surgical Management of Basal Joint Arthritis of the Thumb—Part II: Ligament Reconstruction With Tendon Interposition Arthroplast
,”
J. Hand Surg.
, 11(3), pp.
324
332
.10.1016/s0363-5023(86)80137-x
62.
Gillis
,
J.
,
Calder
,
K.
, and
Williams
,
J.
,
2011
, “
Review of Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthritis Classification, Treatment and Outcomes
,”
Can. J. Plast. Surg.
, 19(4), pp.
134
138
.10.1177/229255031101900409
63.
Davis
,
T. R. C.
,
Brady
,
O.
, and
Dias
,
J. J.
,
2004
, “
Excision of the Trapezium for Osteoarthritis of the Trapeziometacarpal Joint: A Study of the Benefit of Ligament Reconstruction or Tendon Interposition
,”
J. Hand Surg.
,
29
(
6
), pp.
1069
1077
.10.1016/j.jhsa.2004.06.017
64.
Froimson
,
A. I.
,
1970
, “
Tendon Arthroplasty of the Trapeziometacarpal Joint
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
, 70, pp.
191
199
.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/5445726/
65.
Hattori
,
Y.
,
Doi
,
K.
,
Dormitorio
,
B.
, and
Sakamoto
,
S.
,
2016
, “
Arthrodesis for Primary Osteoarthritis of the Trapeziometacarpal Joint in Elderly Patients
,”
J. Hand Surg.
,
41
(
7
), pp.
753
759
.10.1016/j.jhsa.2016.05.009
You do not currently have access to this content.